HISTORY OF THE POPES FROM THE CLOSE OF THE MIDDLE AGES
LITERARY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY AND THE CHURCH
THE POPES AT AVIGNON
I. THE POPES AT
II. THE SCHISM
AND THE GREAT HERETICAL MOVEMENTS, 1378-1409
III. THE SYNODS
OF PISA AND CONSTANCE, 1409-1418
FIRST PAPAL PATRON OF LITERATURE AND THE FINE ARTS,
1. ELECTION OF
POPE NICHOLAS V, 1447-1455
.-2. FIRST YEARS
OF THE REIGN OF POPE NICHOLAS V
.-3. THE JUBILEE
OF 1450. CARDINAL CUSA’S LABOURS IN GERMANY
.-4. THE LAST
IMPERIAL CORONATION IN ROME, 1452.-5. NICHOLAS V AS
PATRON OF THE RENAISSANCE IN LITERATURE AND ART
CONSPIRACY OF STEFANO PORCARO, 1453
.-7. ADVANCE OF
THE TURKS AND FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE
FOR PEACE IN ITALY. THE CRUSADE IN GERMANY. SICKNESS AND DEATH OF NICHOLAS V
THE CHAMPION OF CHRISTENDOM AGAINST ISLAM,
ELECTION OF CALIXTUS III. HIS ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE RENAISSANCE. HIS CORONATION
AND THE EMBASSIES SENT TO DO HIM HOMAGE.
-2. THE HOLY SEE
AND THE EASTERN QUESTION
3. THE VICTORY
OF THE CRUSADERS AT BELGRADE
DEATHS OF CALIXTUS III (1458) AND CARDINAL CAPRANICA
1. ELECTION OF
PIUS II. A.D.1458
.-2. THE EASTERN
QUESTION AND THE CONGRESS OF MANTUA.
-3. THE CONTEST
FOR THE NEAPOLITAN THRONE.
TO PAPAL AUTHORITY
RECONCILIATION OF BOHEMIA WITH THE CHURCH.
-6. THE EASTERN
-7. PLANS OF
.-8. THE CRUSADE
AND DEATH OF PIUS II. A.D. 1464.
the Election OF PAUL II
The Conspiracy of 1468.—Platina and POMPONIUS Laetus
The War against the Turks.—Skanderbeg in Rome.
Struggle against the Domineering
Policy of the Venetians and Louis XI of France.
The New and the Old Cardinals.—Church Questions in Bohemia.
The Peace of 1468. Second Journey of Frederick III to Rome. 7.
The Fall of Negropont.— Sudden Death of the Pope.
Elevation of the Members of the Families of La Rovere and Riario.—The Cardinal of San Sisto.
King of Denmark and Norway, and Federigo of Urbino in Rome.— The League of the 2nd November, 1474.
Jubilee Year, 1475.—King Ferrante
visits Sixtus IV.—The Fall of Caffa and the War with the Turks.
Beginning of the Rupture of Sixtus IV with Lorenzo de' Medici.
The Conspiracy of the Pazzi, 1478.
Tuscan War.—French Intervention in Favour of the
Expeditions against Rhodes and Otranto.
IV and Venice at War with Ferrara and Naples.— The Battle at Campo Morto
The Pope’s Struggle with Venice
and the Colonna.—The Peace of Bagnolo and the Death
of Sixtus IV.
Character of Sixtus IV as Spiritual Ruler.
IV as the Patron of Art and Learning.—(a.) Refounding
and Opening of the Vatican Library—The
Capitoline Museum—The Frescoes
of the Sistine Chapel.
Disturbances in Rome during the Vacancy of the Holy See.— Election of Innocent VIII and First Years of his
Quarrels between the Pope and Ferrante oF
Naples (1484-1487).—The Cibo and Medici families allied by MARRIAGE.
Troubles in the Romagna.—Disputes and Final
Reconciliation between Rome and Naples.
The Eastern Question.
The Turkish Prince.—Prince Dschem in Rome.
Fall of Granada.—Death of the Pope.
Innocent VIII as Patron of
Art and Scholarship.
INNOCENT VIII AND THE DEFENCE OF the Liberties and Doctrines of the
The Bull on Witchcraft of 1484.
Election and Coronation of Alexander VI.
Alliance between Alfonso II of Naples and Alexander VI.
Flight of Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere to France.—Invasion of Italy by Charles VIII.
CHARLES VIII BEFORE ROME.
The Holy League
of March 1495.—
Flight of the
Pope.—Retreat of the French from Italy.
EXPEDITION OF MAXIMILIAN I TO ITALY.
MURDER OF THE DUKE OF GANDIA
Savonarola and Alexander VI.
Borgia resigns the Cardinalate, and becomes Duke of ValEntinois.—Change
in the Papal Policy.—Alliance between Alexander VI. and Louis XII.
French in Milan.—Caesar: Borgia conquers Imola and Forli. — Restoration of
Lodovico Moro. — Louis XII. conquers Milan a Second Time.—Anarchy in
Rome.— Murder of the Duke of Bisceglia. — Frivolity
and Nepotism of Alexander VI.—Partition of the Kingdom of Naples between France
Alexander VI. and the War against the Turks in the years 1499-1502.
Cesar Borgia Governor of
Rome and Duke of the Romagna.— Plans upset by the Death of Alexander VI.
VI.’s action in the Church.—The Great Jubilee of the year 1500.—Edict for
Censorship of the Press.—Missions in America and Africa.—Papal Decision in
regard to the Colonial Possessions of
Spain and Portugal.
Alexander VI. as a Patron of Art.
Restorer of the States of the Church and Patron of the Fine Arts.
CHAPTER I.- The Conclaves of September and November, 1503. Pius III and Julius II. CHAPTER
in the position of Julius II on his Accession. —Fall and Death of Cesar Borgia.—Disputes
of Perugia and Bologna.—Downfall of the Baglioni and Bentivogli.
in the Political Situation in Europe between 1507 and 1509.—Julius II.
threatened by Spain and France.—The Venetians seek to Humiliate the Papacy both
Ecclesiastically and Politically. — Resistance of Julius II. — League of
Cambrai and War against Venice.—The Pope’s Victory.
of Julius II to secure the Independence of the Holy See and to deliver Italy
from the French.— Alliance with the Swiss, and War with Ferrara.—Schism in the
College of Cardinals.—Sickness of the Pope and ' Perilous Situation in
Bologna.—His Winter Campaign against Mirandola.—Loss
of Bologna. — Attempts of Louis XII. and Maximilian I. to create a Schism.—PseudoCouncil at Pisa and General Council in Rome. CHAPTER
II forms An Alliance with Spain.—His dangerous Illness.—His Recovery.—The Holy
League of 1511.— Deposition of the Schismatical Cardinals.—Maximilian endeavours to possess Himself of the Tiara.—Failure of
the French Pretence of a Council at Pisa.—The Battle of Ravenna on Easter
and Downfall of the Schismatics.—Success of the Fifth Ecumenical Council at the
Lateran.—The Swiss as the Saviours of the Holy See. — Annihilation of the Power
of France in Italy.
II as the Patron of the Arts.—The Rebuilding of S. Peter’s and the
Vatican.—Bramante as the Architect of Julius II.—The Sculpture Gallery in the
Belvedere at the Vatican.—Discoveries of Antique Remains.—Building in the
States of the Church.—The Glories of the New Rome created by Julius II.
Angelo in the Service of Julius II. Tomb and Bronze Statue of the Pope.
Paintings of the Ceiling in the Sistine Chapel.
in the Service of Julius II.—The Camera della Segnatura and the Stanza d’Eliodoro.
Beginning of the Pontificate of Leo X.—His Efforts to make Peace.—End of the
Schism of Pisa. CHAPTER II.- The Medici and
the Policy of Leo X, 1513-1515. CHAPTER III.- The Conquest of
Milan by the French. —The Meeting between Leo X and Francis I at Bologna.
CHAPTER IV.- The War of
Urbino.—Conspiracy of Cardinal Petrucci —The Great Creation of Cardinals, July
1, 1517. CHAPTER V.- The Pope's
endeavours to promote a Crusade, 1517-1518. CHAPTER VI.- Leo X and the
Imperial Succession. CHAPTER VII.- The Occasion
and Causes of the Reformation in Germany. —The Contest about Indulgences. CHAPTER VIII.- Luther is
summoned to Rome.—His Transactions with Cardinal Cajetan and with Miltitz. —The Bull “Exsurge”
and its Reception in Germany.—Aleander’s Mission to
the Diet of Worms, and the Imperial Edict against Luther. CHAPTER IX.- Alliance of the Pope with the Emperor Charles V. CHAPTER X.-
Defeat of the French and Increase of the States of the Church. Death of Leo X. CHAPTER XI.- Personality and Manner of Life of Leo X. —His Finances and Court.
CHAPTER XII.- Medicean Rome . CHAPTER XIII.- The Renaissance in the field of Leterature. —Bembo, Sadoleto and Sanazaro. CHAPTER XIV.- Study of Antiquity. —Raphael. — Sudy of Geek. —The VAtican Libary and the Roman University. CHAPTER XV.- Leo X as Patron of the Arts. —The Stanze. CHAPTER XVI.-
Leo X ad Michael Angelo. —The Ner St. Peter. CHAPTER XVII.- Council of the Lateran. CHAPTER XVIII.- Frencvh Concordat.—
The Pontificate of Leo X
CHAPTER I Situation in Rome at the Death of Leo
X. Election of Adrian VI.
CHAPTER II. Early Career of Adrian
VI. Projects of Peace and Reform.
CHAPTER III. Adrian VI as a
Reformer and Ecclesiastical Ruler.
CHAPTER IV. The Mission of
Francesco Chieregati to the Diet of Nuremberg.
—Adrian's Attitude towards the German Schism.
CHAPTER V. Adrian's Efforts to
restore Peace and promote the Crusade. — The Fall of Rhodes and the Support of
CHAPTER VI. The Intrigues of
Cardinal Soderini and the Rupture with France. —Adrian VI joins the Imperial
League. — His Death.
CHAPTER I. Clement VII. —His
Election, Character, and the Beginning of his Reign. —His Ineffectual Efforts
for Peace and his Alliance with Francis I of France.
CHAPTER II. esults of the Battle of Pavia. —Quarrels between the Pope
and the Emperor. —Formation of a Coalition against Charles V (League of Cognac,
May 22, 1526).
CHAPTER III. Clement VII and
Italy at War with Charles V.—The Raid of the Colonna.
CHAPTER IV. The Anti-Papal
Policy of the Emperor. —Advance of the Imperial Army on Rome.
CHAPTER V. The Sack of Rome.
—Captivity of the Pope.
CHAPTER VI The Anarchic
Condition of the Papal States. —The Efforts of Henry VIII and Francis I to
deliver the Pope. — The Attitude of Charles V. The Flight of Clement VII to
CHAPTER VII. Clement VII in
Exile at Orvieto and Viterbo.—The Imperialists leave Rome. — Disaster to the
French Army in Naples.—The Weakness of the Pope’s Diplomacy.—His Return to
CHAPTER VIII. Reconciliation of
the Emperor and the Pope.—The Treaties of Barcelona and Cambrai.
CHAPTER IX. The Meeting of
Clement VII. and Charles V. at Bologna. —The Last Imperial
Coronation.—Restoration of the Medicean Rule in
CHAPTER X. The Religious
Divisions in Germany.
CHAPTER XI. Negotiations as
to the Council, to the Pacification of Nuremberg, 1532.
CHAPTER XII. Clement VII’s
Efforts to protect Christendom from the Turks.
CHAPTER XIII. Clement the
Seventh’s Second Meeting with the Emperor at Bologna.—The Conciliar Question in
the Years 1532-1533.—The Pope and Francis I at Marseilles.— The Marriage of
Catherine de’ Medici.
CHAPTER XIV. The Divorce of
Henry VIII and the English Schism.
CHAPTER XV. The Protestant
Revolt in Scandinavia and Switzerland. —Heretical Movements among the Latin
CHAPTER XVI. The Close of the
Pontificate of Clement VII.—His Position towards Literature and Art.
CHAPTER XVII. Clement VII and
the internal Affairs of the Church.— His Attitude towards the Questions of the
Council and Reform.
CHAPTER XVIII. The Beginnings of
the Catholic Reformation.—The Oratory of the Divine Love.—Gaetano di Tiene and
CHAPTER XIX. Gian Matteo
Giberti.—The Somaschi and the Barnabites.
XX. Reform of the Older Orders.—The Capuchins
of a new “History of the Popes from the Conclusion of the Middle Ages drawn
from original Sources”, cannot be considered a superfluous task. Apart from the
special interest attaching to the annals of this the most ancient and still
most vigorous of dynasties, from a purely scientific point of view, a new work
embodying the substance of the numerous monographs of the last ten years, with
additions and corrections from fresh original documents, seems urgently called
Ranke, the first
in importance of all Protestant German Historians, owes his fame to his Lives of the Popes in the Sixteenth and
Seventeenth Centuries, which appeared in 1834-1836, and which, even in the
most recent editions, essentially represents the state of historical research
at that period. The alterations made by the aged author are, with the exception
of its continuation to the year 1870, confined to a small number of points. He
gives but a summary notice of the Renaissance age, our knowledge of which has
been immensely increased during the last few decades by the labours of learned
men in Italy, as well as in Germany and France; in the latter country
especially, by those of the indefatigable Eugene Müntz.
A thorough acquaintance with that period is an essential preliminary to the
comprehension of the sixteenth century.
Holiness Pope Leo XIII generously opened the secret Archives of the Vatican to
students, it became evident that the History of the Popes during the last four
centuries would have to be re-written. Ranke, Burckhardt, Voigt, Gregorovius, and Creighton all wrote on the Renaissance Age
before these Archives were accessible, and even Reumont,
whose trustworthy and exhaustive "History of the City of Rome" has
been of the greatest use to me, gives but a few specimens of the rich treasures
they contain. Accordingly my first task, during a somewhat prolonged residence
on two occasions in the Eternal City, was to make myself thoroughly acquainted
with them. My studies were greatly facilitated by the kind assistance afforded
me by their custodians, and I soon became convinced that Pertz’s observation, “the keys of St. Peter are still the keys of the Middle Ages” is
also applicable to our own times.
In addition to
the secret Archives of the Vatican, I found, while in Rome, partly by my own
exertions, and partly by the aid of friends, historical materials of great
value in a number of other Archives, which had hitherto been almost inaccessible.
Among these are the Consistorial Archives, the Archives of the Lateran (which
unfortunately have not been classified), of the Inquisition, of Propaganda, of
the Sixtine Chapel, of the Secretaryship of Briefs,
and of the Library of St. Peter’s. Nor must the treasures of the Vatican
Library be passed over, especially as Ranke and Gregorovius were only able to inspect a small number of these manuscripts.
My researches in
the inexhaustible mine of the Papal collections were supplemented by those
which I made in the Libraries and Private Archives of Rome. I visited the
public or semi-public Libraries, which are celebrated throughout the literary
world, as the Angelica, the Barberina, the Casanatense, the Chigi, the Corsini, and the Vallicellana Libraries, and also the less known Altieri, Borghese, and Boncompagni Libraries, the Archives of the Anima, of the Campo Santo al Vaticano,
and of the Santo Spirito, as well as those of the Roman Princes, which, in many
cases, are not easy of access. Among these the Archives of the Colonna,
Gaetani, and Ricci families yielded an unexpected amount of treasure, while
others, as, for example, those of the Odescalchi and
Orsini, were comparatively barren.
mass of documents before me decided me only to begin my systematic
investigation of the Roman Archives at the middle of the fifteenth century,
which we may consider as the period closing the Middle Ages, and forming the
transition between two great epochs.
Ample as are the
historical materials to be found in Rome, I could not limit myself exclusively
to these sources without incurring the danger of being one-sided.
extended my investigations to the other Archives in Italy, especially those of
the more or less important Italian powers, which were in constant communication
with the Holy See, and which sent Ambassadors to Rome at an earlier date, and
more frequently than is generally supposed. The diplomatic correspondence of
the Sfozas in the State Archives at Milan long
detained me, and I was able to fill up the gaps existing in it from the
Ambrosian Library, and afterwards from the National Library of Paris. Florence,
Vienna, and Mantua furnished an unlooked-for number of documents, most of which
are still unknown. Lucca is not so rich, but from Modena and Naples I have
gathered much that is of value for my work.
I need hardly
say that in my various journeys I did not neglect the numerous rich Libraries
and the important Municipal Archives which are scattered through Italy. I also
investigated the collections of manuscripts in France and Germany, and at
several places, as, for example, at Aix in Provence and at Treves, I made
interesting and valuable discoveries.
I owe a debt of
gratitude, in the first place to His Holiness Pope Leo XIII, who has most
graciously been pleased to take an interest in my work, and to encourage me in
its prosecution; then to their Eminences Cardinals Jacobini, Hergenrother, and Mertel,
His Excellency Count Paar, Austrian Ambassador to the
Holy See, Monsignori de Montel and Meszczynski, and Herr Wilhelm Hüffer in Rome; also to Fr. Ehrle, S.J., and Dr. Gottlob, the latter of whom
placed at my disposal a number of documents relating to the war against the
I am also
greatly indebted to the Minister of Public Worship and Education in Vienna for
his kindness in regard to the transmission of manuscripts, and to the
custodians and officials of the Archives and Libraries I have visited, for the
assistance they have so obligingly afforded me in my investigations. I beg them
all to accept my sincere thanks.
volume of this work will conclude the History of the Renaissance Age, and will
appear as soon as possible. The subject matter of the four other volumes, which
will probably complete my undertaking, will be the three great events of
History since the Renaissance: the great disruption in the Western Church, the
Catholic Restoration, and the Modern Revolution.
15th August, 1885.