THE CAMBRIDGE MEDIEVAL HISTORY

VOLUME VI

VICTORY OF THE PAPACY

 

TABLE OF CHAPTERS

 

I. INNOCENT III.

By E. F. Jacob

 

II. PHILIP OF SWABIA AND OTTO IV.

By Austin Lane Poole

 

III. GERMANY IN THE REIGN OF FREDERICK II

By Austin Lane Poole

 

IV. THE INTERREGNUM IN GERMANY.

By Austin Lane Poole

 

V. ITALY AND SICILY UNDER FREDERICK II

By Dr Michelangelo Schipa

 

VI. ITALY, 1230-1280.

By C. W. Previté-Orton

 

VII. ENGLAND: RICHARD I AND JOHN.

By Frederick Maurice Powicke

 

VIII. ENGLAND: HENRY III

By Professor E. F. Jacob

 

IX. THE REIGNS OF PHILIP AUGUSTUS AND LOUIS VIII OF FRANCE

By Frederick Maurice Powicke

 

CHAPTER X. SAINT LOUIS

Bv Charles Petit-Dutailles

 

CHAPTER XI.  THE SCANDINAVIAN KINGDOMS UNTIL THE END OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY

By Halvdan Kort

 

CHAPTER XII. SPAIN, 1034—1240.

By Dr Rafael Altamira

 

CHAPTER XIII.  

(A)  BOHEMIA TO THE EXTINCTION OF THE PREMYSLIDS. (B) POLAND, 1050-1303. (C) HUNGARY, 1000—1301

By Kamil Krofta, Alexander Bruce-Boswell & Louis Leger

 

CHAPTER XIV. COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY IN THE MIDDLE AGES.

By John Harold Clapham

 

CHAPTER XV. NORTHERN TOWNS AND THEIR COMMERCE.

By Henri Pirenne,

 

CHAPTER XVI. THE DEVELOPMENT OF ECCLESIASTICAL ORGANISATION AND ITS FINANCIAL BASIS,

By E. E, Watson,

 

CHAPTER XVII.  THE MEDIEVAL UNIVERSITIES

By Hastings Rahsdall

 

CHAPTER XVIII. POLITICAL THEORY TO c. 1300.

By W. H. V. Reade

 

CHAPTER XIX. MEDIEVAL DOCTRINE IN THE LATERAN COUNCIL OF 1215

By Alexander Hamilton Thompson

 

CHAPTER XX. HERESIES AND THE INQUISITION IN THE MIDDLE AGES c. 1000—1305.

Ry A. S. Turberville

 

CHAPTER XXI. THE MENDICANT ORDERS.

By A. G. Little

 

CHAPTER XXII- ECCLESIASTICAL AND MILITARY ARCHITECTURE

By D.H.S. Cranage & A. Hamilton Thompson

 

CHAPTER XXIII. THE ART OF WAR TO 1400

By A. Hamilton Thompson

 

CHAPTER XXIV. CHIVALRY.

By Miss A. Abram,

 

CHAPTER XXV. LEGENDARY CYCLES OF THE MIDDLE AGES.

By Miss Jessie Laidley Weston

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Rafael Altamira, Historia de España y de la Civiización Española

Byrne, T. S. Manual of Church History

Bryce, History of the Holy Roman Empire

Cánovas del Castillo,Historia General de España

Caryle, A history of Medieval Political Theory in the West

Coulton, Five centuries of Religion

Miller, The Latin Orient

Merriman, The rise of the Spanish empire in the old world and the new

Oman , History of the Art of War in the Middle Ages

Previté-Orton, Outline's of Medieval History

Rashdall, The universities of Europe in the Middle Ages

Reichel, The elements of Canon Law

Carlyle, The Develoment of the theory of the Authority of the Spiritual over the Temporal Power from Gregory VII to Innocent III

Luchaire, Innocent III. 6 vols: 1. Rome et l’Italie. 2. La Croisade des Albigeois. 3. La Papauté et l’Empire. 4. La Question d’Orient. 5. Les royaute's vassales du Saint- Siege. 6. Le Concile de Letran et la reforme de l’Eglise

Gregorovius, Rome in the Middle Ages

Wilson, History of the church and state in Norway from the tenth to the sixteenth century

Colmeiro, Reyes cristianos desde Alonso VI hasta Alfonso XI en Castilla, Aragón, Navarra y Portugal

Kington [Oliphant], T. L. The History of Frederick II, Emperor of the Romans. VOLUME 1 & VOLUME 2

Powicke, The loss of Normandy (1189-1204) Studies in the history of the Angevin empire

Pirie-Gordon, Innocent the Great, an essay on his life and times

Butler, The Lombard Communes; a history of the republics of north Italy

Coulton, From St Francis to Dante;Translations From The Chronicle Of The Franciscan Salimbene (1221-1288)

 

 

 

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF LEADING EVENTS MENTIONED IN THIS VOLUME.

 

fl. 831 Paschasius Radbertus.

858-867 Pontificate of Nicholas I.

fl. 868 Ratramnus.

950 Bohemia becomes a fief of the Empire.

950-985 Reign of Harold Bluetooth of Denmark.

992-1025 Reign of Boleslav the Great of Poland.

995-1000 Reign of Olaf Trygveson in Norway.

997-1038 Reign of St Stephen of Hungary.

c. 1000 The Christianisation of Scandinavia.

1034 Fall of the Caliphate of Cordova.

1037 Ferdinand unites Leon and Castile for the first time.

c. 1040 Beginning of the transformation of Romanesque into Gothic.

1050-1100 The earliest Chansons de Geste composed.

1054 Schism between the Eastern and Western Churches.

1054 Battle of Atapuerca.

1066 Battle of Hastings.

Death of Geoffrey de Preuilly, reputed inventor of tournaments.

1071 Battle of Manzikert.

1079-1142 Peter Abelard

1085 Capture of Toledo from the Moors.

1086 Christian defeat at Zalaca by the Almoravides.

Death of Berengar of Tours.

1095-1114 Reign of Koloman in Hungary. Union with Croatia.

1095 (18-28 Nov.) Council of Clermont proclaims the First Crusade.

1099 Death of the Cid.

1100 Irnerius teaches Roman Law at Bologna.

1104 Consecration of the first Scandinavian archbishop (at Lund in Denmark).

1109 Death of St Anselm.

1118 Capture of Saragossa by the Christians.

1124-1128 Establishment of Christianity in Pomerania.

1125 Decline of the Almoravides in Spain.

1127 Earliest Flemish town charter granted (to St Omer).

c. 1130 Beginning of the Wars of Pretenders in Scandinavia.

c. 1135 Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Regnum Britanniae.

1137 Union of Aragon and Catalonia.

1141 The Council of Sens condemns the doctrine of Abelard.

Death of Hugh of St Victor.

c. 1142 The Decretum of Gratian.

e. 1145-1150 Peter Lombard’s Sentences.

1146 The Almohades arrive in Spain.

1147-1149 The Second Crusade.

1152 Norwegian Church settlement.

1157-1182 Reign of Waldemar the Great of Denmark.

1158 Frederick Barbarossa issues the “'AuthenticumHabita.

1164 Swedish archbishopric founded at Upsala.

The Military Order of Calatrava founded by Alfonso VIII of Castile.

1167 General Congress of Cathari near Toulouse.

1170 Rise of Oxford University to importance.

Birth of St Dominic.

Peter Waldo begins to preach at Lyons.

c. 1170 fl. Chretien of Troyes.

1176 Battle of Legnano.

1177-1194 Reign of Casimir the Just in Poland.

1179 The Third Lateran Council.

1180 (18 Sept.) Death of Louis VII of France: accession of Philip Augustus. Death of John of Salisbury.

c. 1181 Birth of St Francis of Assisi.

1184-1202 Reign of King Sverre of Norway.

1189-1192 The Third Crusade.

1189- 1199 Reign of Richard I of England.

1190 Foundation of the Teutonic Order.

1190- 1197 Reign of Emperor Henry VI.

1190 Original composition of the Nibelungenlied.

1191 Richard I of England defeats Saladin at Arsuf.

1192 Compilation of the Liber Censuum.

1194 Hubert Walter governs England during Richard I’s absence abroad.

1196- 1213 Reign of Peter II of Aragon.

1196 (18 July) Victory of the Almoliades at Alarcos.

1197- 1230 Reign of Premsyl Ottokar I of Bohemia,

1197 (Nov.) Formation of an anti-Imperialist league of cities in Tuscany.

1198 (8 Jan.) Election of Pope Innocent III.

(6 Mar.) Philip of Swabia elected King of Germany.

(17 May) Frederick II crowned King of Sicily at Palermo.

(9 June) Election of Otto IV as anti-king in Germany. Death of A verroes.

Bohemia finally made a kingdom.

1199 Death of Richard I of England. Accession of John. Beginning of direct Papal taxation.

1200 (Jan.—Sept.) Pope Innocent III lays France under an interdict.

Charter granted to the University of Paris by Philip Augustus.

The Deliberatio of Pope Innocent III.

c. 1200 Most Italian cities are instituting Podestas.

1201 The Fourth Crusade begins.

(8 June) The Donation of Neuss by Otto IV.

1202-1241 Reign of Waldemar the Victorious in Denmark.

1202 (Apr.) Philip Augustus makes war upon John.

The Bull Venerabilem.

Death of Joachim of Flora.

1204 (13 Apr.) Sack of Constantinople by the Crusaders. Foundation of the Latin Empire of Constantinople.

(24 June) Final loss of Normandy by John.

1205 Death of Archbishop Hubert Walter.

1207 Stephen Langton consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury.

1208 (24 Feb.) His vocation revealed to St Francis of Assisi,

(21 June) Murder of Philip of Swabia.

(11 Nov.) Otto IV unanimously elected King of Germany at Frankfort.

1209 England laid under an interdict.

Crusade against the Albigensians begins.

(4 Oct.) Otto IV receives the imperial crown at Rome. Excommunication of John.

1210 (Nov.) Excommunication of the Emperor Otto IV.

The Council of Sens prohibits Aristotle.

1211 Diet of Nuremberg offers the crown of Germany to Frederick II.

1212 Christian victory over the Almohades at Las Navas de Tolosa.

The Golden Bull of Bohemia.

1213 John submits to the Pope and receives absolution. r

The Golden Bull of Eger.

Battle of Muret: death of Peter II of Aragon.

1214 Battle of Bouvines.

1215 The Great Charter sealed at Runnymede (15 June).

1215 The Fourth Lateran Council.

1216 (May) Louis of France arrives in England.

(16 July) Death of Innocent III. Election of Pope Honorius III.

(19 Oct.) Death of King John.

(28 Oct.) Henry III crowned at Gloucester

(12 Nov.) Renewal of the Great Charter.

Pope Honorius III confirms the Dominican Order.

1218 Death of Otto IV.

Death of Simon de Montfort, the crusader against the Albigensians.

1219 (Aug.) The Fifth Crusade begins.

Study of the Civil Law forbidden at Paris.

1220  Henry (VII) elected King of the Romans.

Frederick II’s imperial coronation at Rome.

1220 Death of Wolfram von Eschenbach.

1221 Death of St Dominic.

1222 First appearance of the Mongols in Europe.

The Golden Bull of Hungary.

The University of Padua, founded by a migration from Bologna.

1223 (14 July) Death of Philip Augustus.

1223-1226 Reign of Louis VIII of France.

1223 The Franciscan Rule in its final form confirmed by Pope Honorius III.

1224 The University of Naples founded by the Emperor Frederick II

1226 Formation of the second Lombard League.

(3 Oct.) Death of St Francis of Assisi.

Suppression of the first Rhine league.

1226-1229 Second Albigensian Crusade.

1226-1234 Regency of Blanche of Castile.

1226-1270 Reign of St Louis IX of France.

1227 Death of Pope Honorius III. Election of Gregory IX.

Defeat of Waldemar II of Denmark at Bornhovede.

First excommunication of Frederick II.

End of the minority of Henry III.

1228-1229 Crusade of Frederick II. Recovery of Jerusalem.

1228 St Francis of Assisi canonised by Pope Gregory IX.

1230 Treaty of San Germane between Frederick II and the Papacy.

Pope Gregory IX recognises the Third Order of St Francis.

Settlement of the Teutonic Order in Prussia.

Final union of Leon and Castile under Ferdinand III.

The University of Toulouse founded by the Papacy

1231 Renewal of the Lombard League.

Frederick II promulgates a new code for Sicily at Melfi.

Robert Grosseteste begins lecturing at Oxford.

The Franciscans and Dominicans exempted from episcopal jurisdiction by Pope Gregory IX.

1232 Imperial, edict against heretics,

1233 Inauguration of the Inquisition by Pope Gregory IX.

1234 Rebellion of Henry (VII) against his father the Emperor Frederick If.

Canonisation of St Dominic.

1235 Deposition of Henry (VII) of Germany.

1236 Conquest of Cordova from the Moors.

1237 Conrad IV elected King of the Romans.

Frederick II’s victory at Cortenuova.

1239 Frederick II again excommunicated.

1241 (Mar.) The Mongols capture Cracow.

(9 Apr.) They defeat Duke Henry of Silesia at Liegnitz.

(21 Aug.) Death of Pope Gregory IX.

1241 Mongols defeat Hungarians at the battle of Mohi.

1243 (25 June) Election of Pope Innocent IV.

1245 The First Council of Lyons deposes the Emperor Frederick II.

Death of Alexander of Hales. 

1246-1248 St Louis builds the Sainte Chapelle in Paris.

1246 Henry Raspe chosen as anti-King in Germany.

1247 Death of Henry Raspe. William of Holland chosen to succeed him.

System of circuits of enqueteurs established in France.

1248-1254 The first Crusade of St Louis.

1248 (18 Feb.) Defeat of the Emperor Frederick II near Vittoria.

Capture of Seville from the Moors.

1250 Death of the Emperor Frederick II.

The Primo Popolo at Florence.

1250-1273 The Great Interregnum in Germany.

1251 (Jan.) Conrad IV enters Italy.

1251 (May) Pope Innocent IV returns to Italy.

1252 Murder of Peter Martyr, the Dominican Inquisitor.

Death of Ferdinand III of Castile.

The Florentine gold florin first coined.

Innocent IV’s bull, Ad extirpanda, against heresy.

1253- 1278 Reign of Premysl Ottokar II of Bohemia.

1253 William of Rubruquis sent by Louis IX on. a mission to the court of the Great Khan.

Death of Robert Grosseteste.

1254 Death of Conrad IV. Innocent IV invades the Regno.

Formation of the Rhenish League.

Death of Innocent IV.

1254- 1261 Pontificate of Pope Alexander IV.

1254 Konigsberg founded by the Teutonic Knights.

St Louis returns to France.

Publication of The Everlasting Gospel.

1256 Death of William of Holland.

1257 Election of Richard of Cornwall as King of Germany; first appearance of the Seven Electors.

1258 St Louis forbids private wars.

Treaty of Corbeil between Louis IX of France and the King of Aragon.

Provisions of Oxford.

Manfred becomes King of Sicily.

1259 Martin della Torre becomes lord of Milan.

Death of Ezzelino da Romano.

Provisions of Westminster.

Treaty of Paris between England and France.

Death of Matthew Paris.

1260 Florentine defeat at Montaperto. Appearance of the Fraticelli.

c. 1260 First appearance of the Flagellants.

1261 Treaty of Nymphaeum. 

1261-1264 Pontificate of Urban IV.

1261 Recapture of Constantinople by the Greeks: end of the Latin Empire.

William of Moerbeke begins to translate Aristotle from the Greek.

1264 Prise of Amiens.

Victory of the barons at Lewes.

1265- 1268 Pontificate of Pope Clement IV.

1265 Clement IV’s treaty with Charles of Anjou.

Birth of Dante.

Simon de Montfort slain at the battle of Evesham.

1266 Defeat and death of Manfred at Benevento. 

1266- 1285 Reign of Charles I of Anjou in Naples and Sicily.

1268 Battle of Tagliacozzo: execution of Conradin.

Constitutions of Cardinal Ottobon.

1268-1271 Three years’ interregnum in the Papacy.

1270 St Louis again embarks oil Crusade.

(25 July) Death of St Louis.

1270- 1285 Reign of Philip III of France.

1271- 1276 Pontificate of Pope Gregory X.

1272 Death of Richard of Cornwall.

Death of Henry III of England.

1273 (1 Oct.) Rudolf of Habsburg elected King of the Romans.

1274 Death of St Thomas Aquinas.

Second Council of Lyons.

1277-1280 Pontificate of Nicholas III.

1277 Execution of Averroists at Paris.

King Magnus the Lawmender confirms the privileges of the Norwegian Church.

1277-1295 Edward I’s campaigns in Wales. Adoption of the longbow.

1278 Defeat and death of Ottokar II of Bohemia.

Fall of the Torriani.

1280 Death of Albertus Magnus.

1281-1285 Pontificate of Martin IV.

1281 Martin IV excommunicates the Greeks.

1282 (30 Mar.) The Sicilian Vespers.

Peter III of Aragon becomes King of Sicily.

Signature of the Magna Carta of Denmark.

1284 Loria’s victory off Naples. Capture of Charles the Larne.

Naval victory of Genoa at Meloria. Fall of Pisa.

1285 Death, of Charles of Anjou.

1285-1287 Pontificate of Honorius IV.

1287 Death of Peter III of Aragon.

1288- 1289 Pontificate of Pope Nicholas IV.

1289- 1328 Mission of John of Monte Corvino to China and the Far East.

1291 Fall of Acre.

Taxatio of Pope Nicholas IV.

1294 Death of Roger Bacon.

1298 Battle of Falkirk.

1300 Boniface VIII’s Bull Super cathedram.

1301 Death of Andrew III of Hungary: end of the Arpad dynasty.

1302 Boniface VIII’s Bull Unum Sanctam.

1306 Murder of Wenceslas III, King of Bohemia: end of the Premyslid dynasty.

1308 Death of Duns Scotus.

1321 Death of Dante.

1322 Battle of Boroughbridge.

1344 Foundation of the Order of the Garter.

1346 Battle of Crecy.

1348 Foundation of the University of Prague by the Emperor Charles IV.

Death of William of Occam.

c. 1348 Beginnings of the Perpendicular style in English architecture.

1365 University of Vienna founded by Duke Rudolf IV.

1385 University of Heidelberg founded.

1429 Foundation of the Order of the Golden Fleece by Philip the Good of Burgundy.

1485 Caxton publishes Malory’s Norte If Arthur.