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Turks and Afghans







This volume deals generally with the history of India under Muhammadan rule from the time of the earliest invasions of the Muslims to the overthrow of the Lodi dynasty on the field of Panipat and the establishment of Babur the Timurid on the throne of Delhi, and covers the period unfortunately described by that usually careful scholar, the late Mr Edward Thomas, as that of the "Pathan Kings" of Delhi. Of the five dynasties which occupied the throne of Delhi during this period, from about 1200 to 1526, three were Turkish, or of Turkish descent; one claimed to be of Arab blood, and one was Afghan, but probably not Pathan.

It is only in respect of Delhi, the historic capital of Muslim rule in India, that it has been found possible to adhere to the year 1526 as the termination of an epoch of that rule. In the case of other states, both Muslim and Hindu, it has been found necessary to carry the local history on, either to the termination of the state's independence or to a period at which it may conveniently be relinquished. The history of the Hindu Kingdom of Vijayanagar, for instance, is continued to 1565, the date of its overthrow by the confederate Muslim Kingdoms of the Deccan; that of the Muslim Kingdoms of Malwa, Gujarat, Bengal, and Kashmir to the dates of their annexation by Akbar, and that of the independent Kingdoms of the Deccan to 1600, the date of the capture of Ahmadnagar by Akbar's third son, Sultan Daniyal.












































CEYLON A.D. 1215-1527


My best thanks are due to Sir John Marshall and Sir E. Denison Ross for having kindly undertaken arduous work in connection with this volume in spite of heavy official duties. I must also acknowledge the assistance of Mr G. E. Harvey, Mr S. Krishnaswami Ayyangar, Don Martino de Zilva Wickremasinghe, and Mr W. E. C. Browne, who has prepared the index. In conclusion, I desire to express my gratitude for the advice and assistance which I have at all times received from Professor E. J. Rapson, the editor of Volumes I and II of this history.

W. H.

THE ATHENAEUM 26 March 1928.


711 Invasion of Sind by Muhammad b. Qasim

712 Capture of Nirun. Defeat and death of Dahir. Capture of Aror

713 Capture of Multfin by the Muslims

715 Death of Muhammad b. Qasim

717 Death of the Caliph Sulaimfm and accession of Umar II

724-743 Hisham Caliph Junaid governor of Sind

750 Overthrow of the Umayyads by the 'Abbasids. Musa, governor of Sind

754-775 Al-Mansur Caliph. Hishfun governor of Sind

813-833 Al-Ma'iniin Caliph. Rebellion of Bashar, son of Daud, in Sind. Musa Barmaki governor of Sind

830 Death of Musa and accession of his son 'Amran as governor of Sind

871 Virtual extinction of the authority of the Caliphs in Sind. Arab principalities of Multan and Mansurah

977 Sabuktigin ascends the throne of Ghazni

988 Sabuktigin takes Kabul and other territory from Jaipal I

993-4 Foundation of Delhi by the Tomaras

994 Sabuktigin acquires the government of Khurasan

997 Death of Sabuktigin and accession of Ismail

998 Deposition of Ismail and accession of Mahmud

999 Accession of Ganda Chandel in Dhanga. Mahmud annexes Sistan and raids some frontier towns of India. Expulsion of 'Abd-ul-Malik, the last Samanid ruler of Bukhara

1001 Mahmud defeats Jaipal I at Peshawar and plunders Und. Death of Jaipal I and accession of Anandpal

1002 Mahmud suppresses a rebellion in Sistan

1004 Mahmud defeats Bajra and plunders Uch

3005 Defeat of Anandpal and submission of Abu-'l-Fath Daud of Multan. Sukhpal, having accepted Islam, is appointed governor of Und

1007 Apostasy and rebellion of Sukhpal (Nawasa Shah). His defeat and capture

1008 Mahmud invades India and defeats the army of the Hindu confederacy between Und and Peshawar. He captures and plunders Nagarkot, or Kangra

1009 Mahmud reduces the principality of Ghur to obedience

1010 Mahmud invades India and defeats a Hindu army at Taraori

1011 Mahmud establishes his authority in Multan

1013 Mahmud invades India, defeats Bhim, and captures Nandana

1014 Mahmud invades India and plunders Thanesar

1015 Mahmud invades Kashmir, but is forced to retire. Accession of Gangeyadeva Kalachuri in Chedi

1016 Death of Rajaraja Chola, the Great

1016-7 Operations in Khvarazm and in the northern provinces of the empire of Ghazni

1018-9 Mahmud invades India, marches to Baran, Mahaban, Muttra, and Kanauj, captures Manaich, Asm, and Sharva, returns to Ghazni with his booty, and founds the great mosque of Ghazni

1021 Mahmud invades India, defeats a Hindu confederacy under Ganda of Kalinjar, and returns to Ghazni

Invasion of Dir, Swat, and Bajaur, and of Kashmir. Flight of Bhim and annexation of the Punjab

1022 Mahmud invades India, receives the submission of the Kachhwaha raja of Gwalior ami of Ganda of Kalinjar, and returns to Ghazni

1023 Operations in Transoxiana

1024 Epedition to Somnath, Mahmud captures the town and plunders the temple

1026 Mahmud returns to Ghazni Expedition against the Jats

1030 Death of Mahmud. Mashud blinds his brother Muhammad and ascends the throne

1034 Rebellion in the Punjab crushed by Tilak

1037 Masud invades India and captures Hansi

1039 Karnadeva Kalachuri invades the Pala kingdom of Bihar

1040 Defeat of Masud by the Saluqs. lie retires from Ghazni towards India. His deposition and death. Restoration of Muhammad

Death of Gangeyadeva and accession of Kamadeva Kalachuri in Chedi

1042 Deposition and death of Muhammad, and accession of Maudud

1044 Accession of Somesvara Ahavamalla, Chalukya

1046 Invasion of Ghur

1049 Death of Maudud and accession of Mas'ud II. Deposition of Masud II and accession of Ali

1052 Deposition of Ali and accession of 'Abd-ur-Rashid

1053 Usurpation and assassination of Tughril. Accession of Farrukhzad

1059 Death of Farrukhzad ami accession of Ibrahim

1060 Karnadeva of Chedi and Bhim II of Gujarat crush Bhoj of Malwa

1069 Death of Somesvara Ahavamalla, Chalukya

1070 Accession of Kulottunga, the Chalukya-Chola

1076 Accession of Vikramaditya VI, Chalukya

1077 Accession of Ramapala in Bihar

1079 Capture of Ajudhan and invasion of Gujarat by Ibrahim of Ghazni

1090 The Gaharwars gain possession of Benares and Ajodhya

1094 Accession of Siddharaja Jayasiugha in Gujarat

1099 Death of Ibrahim and accession of Masud III in Ghazni

1101 Death of Vinayaditya Hoysala and accession of Ballala I

1106 Death of Ballala I and accession of Vishnu Hoysala

1115 Death of Masud III and accession of Shirzad in Ghazni

1116 Deposition of Shirzad and accession of Arsalan Shah

1118 Deposition of Arsalan Shah and accession of Bahrain Shah

Death of Kulottunga, Chalukya-Chola

1119 Suppression of the rebellion of Bahlim in the Punjab

Vijaya Sena establishes his independence in Bengal

1120 Death of Ramapala in Bihar

1128 Death of Vikramitditya VI, Chalukya and accession of Somesvara III

The Parihars oust the Kachhwahas from Gwalior. The Kachhwahas establish themselves in Amber

1138 Death of Somesvara III and accession of Jagadekamalla, Chalukya

1141 Accession of Narasimha Hoysala

1143 Death of Siddhariija Jayasingha of Gujarat

1149 Bahram of Ghazni captures Saif-ud-din Ghuri and puts him to death

1150 Death of Jagadekamalla and accession of Taila IIJ, Chalukya

1151 Burning of Ghazm by 'Ala-ud-din Husain, Jahansuz

1152 Death of Bahram Shah and accession of Khusrav Shah

1160 Death of Khusrav Shah and accession of Khusrav Malik

1173 Muizz-ud-din Muhammad b. Sam appointed governor of Ghazni by his brother, Ghiyas-ud-din

Death of Narasimha Hoysala and accession of Vira Ballala II

1175 Muhammad invades India and captures Multan and Uch

Lakshmana Sena succeeds Vijaya Sena in Nadiya (Nuddea)

1178 Muhammad invades Gujarat and is defeated

1181 Muhammad invades the Punjab and builds and garrisons Sialkot

1182 Prithvi Raj captures Mahoba from Parmab Chandel

1183 Restoration of Somesvara IV

1186 Muhammad again invades the Punjab and captures and imprisons Khusrav Malik. End of the Yamini dynasty

1189 Death of Somesvara IV, Chalukya

1190 Vira Ballala II defeats Bhillama Yadava

1901 Muhammad captures Bhatinda, but is defeated by Prithvi Raj at Taraori

1192 Second battle of Taraori. Defeat and death of Prithvi Raj. Occupation of Hansi, Samana, and Guhram, and appointment of Qutb-uddin Aibak as governor

1192-3 Capture of Delhi by Qutb-ud-din Aibak, who makes it his capital.

Conquest of Bihar by Ikhtiyar-ud-din

1194 Ajmer taken by the Hindus and recovered by Aibak

1195 Aibak invades Gujarat and plunders Anhilvara. He is appointed viceroy of the Muslim dominions in India

1196 Muhammad invades India, captures Bayana, and advances to Gwalior

1197 Aibak is defeated and driven into Ajmer by Raja Bhim of Gujarat

1198 Aibak again invades Gujarat and plunders Anhilvara

1202 Ikhtiyar-ud-din captures Nadiya and establishes himself at Lakhnawati, or Gaur

Aibak captures Kalinjar

1203 Death of Ghiyas-ud-din and accession of Muizz-ud-din Muhammad b. Sam as sole ruler

1205 Defeat of Muhammad by the Turkmans. His expedition to India

Ikhtiyar-ud-din's attempt to invade Tibet

1206 Death of Ikhtiyar-ud-din in Bengal

Death of Muhammad and accession of Quth-ud-din Aibak in India

1208- 9 Aibak occupies Ghazni, but is expelled by Taj-ud-din Yildiz

1210 Death of Aibak and accession of Aram Shah. Nasir-ud-din Qabacha proclaims his independence in Multan

Birbal Parihur recovers the fortress of Gwalior

1211 Deposition of Aram Shah and accession of Shams-ud-din Iltutmish

1212 Siahji Rathor establishes himself in Marwar

1215 Taj-ud-din Yildiz invades the Punjab

1216 Yildiz is defeated at Taraori by llbutmish, who puts him to death

Death of Kulottunga Chola and accession of Hajaraja III. Accession of Maravarmau Sundara Pandya

1217 Iltutmish recovers Lahore and the upper Punjab from Qabacha

1219 Accession of Rawal Chachakdeo of Jaisalmer

1220 Death of Vira Ballala II and accession of Narasimha II, Hoysala

1221 Jalal-ud-din Mangbarni of Khvarazm takes refuge in Lahore, and, being expelled, exacts tribute from Qabacha

1224 Jalal-ud-din returns to Persia

1225 Iltutmish receives the submission of Hisfun-ud-din Iwaz of Bengal

Capture of Ranthambhor by Iltutmish

1226 Iltutmish captures Mandawar and invades Qabacha's territory.

Capture of Multan and Uch. Qabacha is drowned in the Indus.

Iltutmish establishes his authority in Hind

1227 Nasir-ud-din Mahmud, son of Iltutmish, crushes the rebellion of Iwaz in Bengal, and puts him to death

1228 Conquest of Assam by the Ahoms

1229 Nasir-ud-din Mahmud defeats and slays Raja Britu. Death of Malimud

1230-1 Iltutmish crushes the rebellion of Balka in Bengal

1231-2 The Qutb Minar founded

1232 Iltutmish recovers Gwalior from Maugal Bhava Deo, Parihar

1233 Death of Narasimha II and accession of Somesvara Hoysala

1234 Iltutmish invades Millwa, captures Bhilsa, and sacks Ujjain

1235 Expedition against the Khokars

1236 Death of Iltutmish and accession of Rukn-ud-din Firuz. Deposition and death of Firuz and accession of Raziyya

1237 Suppression of a revolt of the Ismailis

1239 Suppression of the rebellion of Ayaz in the Punjab

Death of Maravarman Sundara Pandya I

1240 Deposition of Raziyya ami accession of Muizz-ud-din Bahrain.

Death of Raziyya and rebellion of Sunqar

1241 Death of Sunqar. Capture of Lahore by the Mughuls

Death of Rawal Chachakdeo of Jaisalmer and accession of Karan Singh I

1242 Mutiny of the army; deposition and death of Bahrain, and accession of 'Ala-ud-din Masud

1243 Death of Bhim and accession of Visaladeva Vaghela in Gujarat

1244 Defeat of Tughril in Bengal by the Hindus of Cuttack

1245 The Mughuls invade India and reach Multan and Uch

1246 Deposition and death of Mas'iid and accession of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud

1247 Mahmud recovers the Punjab from the Khokars

1247-8 Balban suppresses a rebellion in the Doab

1249 Balban suppresses a rebellion in Mewat

1251 Accession of Jatavarman Sundara Pandya I

1251-2 Balban invades Malwa and defeats the raja of Chanderi and Narwar

1253 Balban is disgraced

1254 Expedition into Katchr

1255 Balban is restored to favour

1256-7 Suppression of the rebellions of Qutlugh Khan and Kishlu Khan.

Invasion of the Punjab by the Mughuls

1258 Retreat of the Mughuls

1259 Suppression of disorder in the Doab

1260 Punishment of the Meos

1264 Death of Somesvara Hoysala

1266 Death of Mahmud and accession of Ghiyas-ud-din Balban

1268 Accession of Maravarman Kulasekhara Pandya

1268-9 Suppression of disorders in the Punjab

1270 Restoration of Lahore and re-establishment of provincial government in the Punjab

1271 Death of Karan Singh I of Jaisalmer

1279 Mughtd invasion repelled. Rebellion of Tughril in Bengal

1280 Suppression of Tughril's rebellion, Bughra Khan, Balban's second son, appointed to the government of Bengal

1282 Abdication of Jaitra Singh and accession of Hamira in Ranthambhor

1285 Muhammad Khan, Balban's elder son, slain by the Mughuls

1287 Death of Balban and accession of Mu'izz-ud-din Kaiqubad. Mughul invasion repelled. Massacre of Mughuls and 'New Muslims'

1288 Meeting between Kaiqubad and his father, Bughra Khan of Bengal

1290 Death of Kaiqub

1291-2 Rebellion of Chhajju suppressed

Death of Nasir-ud-din Bughra and accession of Rukn-ud-din Kaikaus in Bengal

1292 Mughul invasion. 'Ala-ud-din Khalji invades Malwa and captures Bhilsa

Death of Narasimha III and accession of Ballala III, Hoysala

1294 'Ala-ud-din invades the kingdom of Deogir, in the Deccan

1295 Duda Singh Bhati is elected Rawal of Jaisalmer

1296 Murder of Firuz and accession of 'Ala-ud-din Muhammad

1297 Conquest of Gujarat

1299 The Mughuls invade India and are defeated before Delhi

1300 Siege of Ranthambhor. Rebellion of Akat Khan suppressed. Rebellion of Haji Maula suppressed

1301 Capture of Ranthambhor by 'Ala-ud-diu Khalji

1302-3 Capture of Chitor. Failure of an expedition to Warangal. Mughul invasion

Death of Kaikaus and accession of Shams-ud-din Firuz Shah in Bengal

1306 Mughul invasion repelled by Tughluq

1306-7 Expedition of Kafur (Malik Naib) to Deogir

Ala-ud-din establishes his authority in Marwar

1307-8 Mughul invasion repelled

1308 Expedition to Warangal. Prataparudradeva II submits and pays tribute

1310 Expedition, under Malik Naib, into the Peninsula. Capture of Dvaravatipura and Madura. Mosque built sit Rameswaram. Submission of the Pilndya and Kerala kingdoms. Ghiyas-ud-din Bahadur assumes sovereignty in Eastern Bengal

1311 Death of Maravarman Kulasckhara Pandya

1315 Shah Mirza, enters the service of Sinha Devu of Kashmir

1316 Death of 'Ala-ud-din and accession of Shihab-ud-din Umar. Death of Malik Naib Deposition of Umar and accession of Qutb-ud-din Mubarak

1317 Mubarak's expedition to Deogir. Capture and death of Harpal

1318-9 Rebellion of Asad-ud-din. Death of Firuz and accession of Shihab-ud-din Bughra in Western Bengal. Bughra is deposed by Bahadur

1320 Murder of Mubarak and usurpation of Nasir-ud-din Khusrav. Defeat and death of Khusrav and accession of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq (Ghazi Malik)

1321 Expedition to Warangal under Muhammad Jauna (Ulugh Khan). Rebellion of Muhammad

1323 Second expedition to Warangal under Muhammad. Capture of Prataparudradeva II. Mughul invasion

Nasir-ud-din ascends the throne in Western Bengal

1324 Firuz Shah's expedition to Bengal

1325 Death of Firuz and accession of Muhammad

Ghiyas-ud-din Bahadur restored in Western Bengal

1326 Rebellion of Gurshasp. Qadr Khan governor of Western Bengal

1327 Capital transferred from Delhi to Daulatabad

1328 Rebellion of Kishlu Khan in Multan. Invasion of India by 'Ala-uddin Tarmashirin the Mughul .

1329 Transportation of the inhabitants of Delhi to Daulatabad. Issue of fictitious currency

1330 Bahrain acquires the government of Eastern Bengal

1331 Rebellion of Ghiyas-ud-din Bahadur in Bengal

1333 Punitive expedition in the Doab

1334 Rebellion of Sayyid Jalfil-ud-diu Ahsan in Madura

1335 Muhammad leaves Delhi for Madura. He retires from Warangal. Rebellion in Lahore suppressed by Khavja Jahan

1336 Famine. Foundation of Sargadwari. Rebellion of Nusrat Khan at Bidar. Foundation of Vijayanagar

1337-8 Expedition into the Himalaya. Capture of Nagarkot, Failure of the expedition

1338-9 Fakhr-ud-din Mubarak Shah proclaims his independence in Bengal

1339 Death of Jalal-ud-din Ahsan Shah and accession of 'Ala-ud-din Udanji Shah in Madura
Death of Sangama I and accession of Harihara I in Vijayanagar

1339-40 Rebellion of 'Ali Shah Kar in the Deccan

1340 Rebellion of 'Ain-ul-Mulk in Oudh

Death of Udanji Shah and accession of Quth-ud-din Firuz Shah in Madura. Death of Firuz Shah and accession of Ghiyas-ud-din Muhammad Damaghan Shah in Madura

1340-1 Rebellion of Malik Shahu Lodi in Multan. Accession of 'Ala-ud-dm 'Ali Shah in Bengal

1342 Ibn Batutah leaves Delhi on his mission to China. Death of Vira Ballala III, Hoysala, at Trichinopoly

1343 Muhammad's expedition into the districts of Sunam, Samana, Kaithal, and Guhram. Accession of Haji Shams-ud-din lliyas, Bhanyara, in Bengal

1344 Arrival in Delhi of the envoy of the Caliph al-Hakim III. Rebellion in Kara. Death of Ghiyas-ud-din Damaghan Shah and accession of Nosir-uddin Damaghan Shah in Madura

1345 Rebellion of the centurions in Gujarat. Muhammad leaves Delhi for Gujarat, and suppresses the rebellion

1346 Kanhayya Naik establishes his independence in Warangal. Vira Ballala III of Dvaravatipura founds Vijayanagar. Rebellion in Daulatabad: Ismail Mukh proclaimed king of the Deccan. Muhammad besieges Daulatabad. Shah Mirza ascends the throne of Kashmir under the title of Shams-ud-din

1347 Rebellion of Taghi in Gujarat. 'Ala-ud-din Bahman Shah proclaimed king of the Deccan

1348 Muhammad besieges Girnar in Kathiawar

1349 Capture of Girnar. Death of Shams-ud-din and accession of Jamshid in Kashmir

1350 Muhammad invades Sind. Deposition of Jamshid and accession of Ala-ud-din in Kashmir

1351 Death of Muhammad and accession of Firuz

1353-4 Firuz Shah's first expedition to Bengal

1354 Death of Harihara I and accession of Bukka I in Vijayanagar

1356 Foundation of Hissar. Death of Nasir-ud-din Ditmaghan Shah and accession of 'Adil Shah in Madura

1357 Death of Iliyas and accession of Sikandar in Bengal

1358 Death of Bahman Shah and accession of Muhammad I Bahmani in the Deccan

1359 Firuz Shah's second expedition to Bengal. Death of 'Ala-ud-din and accession of Shihab-ud-din in Kashmir

1360 Firuz Shah's expedition to Orissa. Death of Adil Shah and accession of Fakhr-ud-din Mubarak Shah in Madura. Muhammad I, Bahmani, invades Telingana

1361 Capture of Kangra, or Nagarkot, by Firuz Shah

1362 FiruzShah's first expedition into Sind. Muhammad I, Bahmani, again invades Telingana. Rebellion of Bahrain Khan Mazandarani in Daulatabad

1363 Firuz Shah's second expedition into Sind

1364 Death of Rana Hamir Singh and accession of Khet Singh

1365 Muhammad I, Bahmani, invades Vijayanagar and defeats Bukka I. It is stipulated in the treaty of peace that in future wars non-combatants shall not be molested.

1366 Suppression of the rebellion of Bahrain Khan Mazandarani

1367 Completion of the great mosque at Gulbarga

1372-3 Death of Mubarak Shah and accession of 'Ala-ud-din Sikandar Shah in Madura

1377 Rebellions in Etawah and Katehr. Extinction of the Muslim dynasty of Madura by Bukka I of Vijayanagar. Death of Muhammad I and accession of Mujahid Bahmani

1378 Death of Shihab-ud-din and accession of Qutb-ud-din in Kashmir. Assassination of Mujahid and accession of Daud Bahmani. Assassination of Daud and accession of Muhammad II, Bahmani

1380 Suppression of the rebellion in Katehr

1382 Independence of Raja Ahmad, or Malik Raja, in Khandesh. Death of Rana Khet Singh and accession of Lakha Singh

1387 Firuz permits his son to be proclaimed under the title of Nasir-uddin Muhammad Shah

1388 Deposition of Muhammad Shah. Death of Firuz and accession of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq. II

1389 Death of Tughluq II and accession of Abu Bakr

1390 Expulsion of Abu Bakr and restoration of Muhammad

1391 Rebellion in Gujarat. Zafar Khan appointed governor

1392 Rebellion in Etawah. Dilavar Khan governor of Malwa

1393 Rebellions in Etawah and Mewat. Malik Sarwar, Khvaja Jahiin establishes his independence and founds the kingdom of Jaunpur. Death of Sikandar and accession of Ghiyas-ud-din A'zam Shah in Bengal

1394 Death of Muhammad and accession of 'Ala-ud-din Sikandar. Death of Sikandar and accession of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud. Rebellion in the Punjab suppressed by Sarang Khan. Nusrat Khan proclaimed king under the title of Nasir-ud-din Nusrat Shah. Death of Qutb-ud-din and accession of Sikandar in Kashmir

1395 Rebellion of Sarang Khan in the Punjab

1396 Muzaffar I establishes his independence in Gujarat. Rebellion of Baha-ud-din of Sagar in the Deccan

1397 Death of Rana Lakha Singh and accession of Mokalji. Pir Muhammad, son of Timur, captures Uch . Death of Muhammad II and accession of Ghiyas-ud-din Bahmani. Deposition of Ghiyas-ud-din and accession of Shams-ud-din. Deposition of Shams-ud-din and accession of Kiruz Shah Bahmani

1398 Pir Muhammad captures Multan. Mallu becomes supreme in Delhi. Timur Lang crosses the Indus and invades India. He appears before Delhi, defeats Mahmud and Mallu and plunders and devastates the city. Invasion of the Deccan by Harihara II of Vijayanagar and Narsingh of Kherla. Rebellion of the Kolis in the Deccan crushed by Firuz Bahmani

1399 Timur's retreat. Death of Nusrat Shah. Suppressions of rebellions in Bayana, Katehr, and Etawah. Death of Malik Sarwar and accession of Ibrahim Shah to the throne of Jaunpur. Death of Raja Ahmad and accession of Nasir Khan in Khandesh. Firuz Bahmani defeats Harihara II, invades Vijayanagar, and enslaves large numbers of the Hindu population. Defeat of Narsingh of Kherla.

1400 Mallu leads an expedition into Etawah. Firuz Bahmani founds Firilzabad, on the Bhima.
Har Singh Tomar captures Gwalior from the Muslims

1401 Mahmud Shah returns to Delhi. Pact between Muzaffar I of Gujarat, Dilavar Khan of Malwa, Nasir Khan of Khandesh, and Harihara II of Vijayanagar against Firuz Bahmani

1402 Death of Mubarak and accession of Ibrahim Shah in Jaunpur. Mahmud establishes himself in Kanauj. Mallu returns from Kanauj to Delhi. Mallu attempts to recover Gwalior

1403 Mallu makes a second unsuccessful attempt to recover Gwalior. Rebellion of Tatar Khan in Gujarat

1404 Mallu besieges Etawall, and Kanauj. Usurpation of Ganesh in Bengal

1405 Death of Mallu. Mahmud Shah returns to Delhi at the invitation of Daulat Khan Lodi

1406 Expeditions to Samana and Kanauj. Ibrahim Shah of Jaunpur captures Kanauj. Death of Dilavar Khan and accession of Hushang Shah in Malwa. Death of Harihara II and accession of Bukka II in Vijayanagar. Firuz Bahmani invades Vijayanagar, enslaves 60,000 Hindus, and compels Bukka to give him a daughter in marriage

1407 Ibrahim Shah of Jaunpur captures Sambhal and Baran. Muzaffar of Gujarat invades Malwa and captures Hushang Shah

1408 Mahmud Shah recovers Baran and Sambhal from Ibrahim Shah and Hissar from Khizr Khan. Death of Bukka II and accession of Devaraya I in Vijayanagar. Death of Chonda Kathor and accession of his son, Ranmall

1409 Khizr Khan besieges Delhi

1410 Khizr Khan captures Rohtak. Death of Azam and accession of Saif-ud-din Hamza in Bengal

1411 Khizr Khan captures Narnaul, besieges Mahmud Shah in Siri, and captures Firuzabad.
Death of Muzaffar I and accession of Ahmad I in Gujarat

1412 Death of Hamza and accession of Shihab-ud-din Bayazid in Bengal. Firuz Bahmani invades and ravages Gondwana.

1413 Death of Mahmud at Kaithal and failure of the house of Tughluq. Daulat Khan Lodi remains in authority at Delhi. Death of Devaraya I and accession of Vira Vijaya in Vijayanagar.

1414 Khizr Khan captures Delhi and ascends the throne. Death of Ganesh and accession of Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Shah in Bengal.

1415 Suppression of the rebellion of Malik Tughan in Sirhind

1416 Malik Tughan again rebels, but submits. Death of Sikandar and accession of Ali Shah in Kashmir

1417 Firuz Bahmani invades Telingana

1418 Suppression of the rebellion of Har Singh of Katehr. Expedition to Etawah. Expeditions to Koil and Sambhal. Khizr Khan besieges Badaun. Firuz Bahmani invades Vijayanagar, but is defeated and expelled

1419 Khizr Khan raises the siege of Badaun . Ahmad I of Gujarat invades Malwa and defeats Hushang

1420 Islam Khan Lodi suppresses a rebellion in the Punjab. Expedition to Koil and Etawah, and invasion of Katehr. Suppression of the rebellion of Malik Tughan in Sirhind. Death of Ali Shah and accession of Zain-ul-Abidin in Kashmir

1421 Expeditions into Mewat and to Etawah. Death of Khizr Khan and accession of Muizz-ud-din Mubarak Shah. Rebellion of Jasrat the Khokar

1422 Suppression of the rebellion of Jasrat. Expedition of Hushang of Malwa to Orissa. Ahmad I of Gujarat invades Malwa and besieges Mandu. Rebellion of Ahmad Khan Bahmani. He defeats the royal troops. Deposition of Firuz and accession of Ahmad Shah Bahmani. Death of Firuz. Ahmad I of the Deccan besieges Kherla, and is attacked by Hushang of Malwa, whom he defeats

1423 Invasion of Katehr. Jasrat again rebels. Shaikh 'Ali of Kabul plunders Multan. Mubarak marches to the relief of Gwalior, which is besieged by Hushang of Malwa. Ahmad Bahmani invades Vijayanagar, massacres enormous numbers of Hindus, and compels Vira Vijaya to pay tribute. Famine in the Deccan

1424 Mubarak returns to Delhi and invades Katehr. Ahmad Bahmani invades Telingana and captures Warangal

1425 Suppression of the rebellion of Jalal Khan and Abd-ul-Qadir in Mewat. Ahmad Bahmani recovers Mahur and Kalain in Berar, and halts at Ellichpur.

1426 Expedition into Mewat and suppression of the rebellion of Muhammad Khan Auhadi of Bayana .

1427 Mubarak returns to Delhi. Muhammad Khan Auhadi escapes and recovers Bayana. Expedition to Bayana. Hostilities between Mubarak and Ibrahim Shah of Jaunpur

1428 Retreat of Ibrahim Shah of Jaunpur. Expedition to Gwalior. Recovery of Bayana. Rebellion in Mewat. Jasrat the Khokar in rebellion. Ahmad Bahmani inarches to recover tribute from Kherla, but retrains from attacking Hushang of Malwa who is besieging the fortress. He retreats ; Hushang follows, and is attacked and defeated by Ahmad

1429 Expeditions to Gwalior, Athgath, and Rapri. Rebellion of Fulad Khan in Bhatinda. War between the Deccan and Gujarat. Ahmad Bahmani transfers his capital from Gulbarga to Bidar

1430 Siege of Bhatinda. Zafar Khan of Gujarat defeats the army of the Deccan

1431 Shaikh Ali of Kabul relieves Fulad Khan in Bhatinda, and defeats and slays Islam Khan Lodi near Multan. Shaikh Ali captures Talamba. Rebellion of Fulad Khan. Death of Jalal-ud-dm and accession of Shams-ud-din Ahmad in Bengal

1432 Mubarak marches into the Punjab and disperses his enemies. Jasrat again rebels. Rebellion of Jalal Khan in Mevvfit suppressed by Mubarak . Completion of Hidar, the new capital of the Deccan

1433 Shaikh Ali captures Lahore. Mubarak recovers the Punjab. Capture of Bhatinda from Fulad Khan. Hushang of Malwa annexes Kulpi. Assassination of Rana Mokalji and accession of Rana Kumbha

1434 Assassination of Mubarak and accession of Muhammad Shah. Overthrow of the minister, Sarvar-uI-Mulk

1435 Death ofHushang Shah of Malwa and accession of Ghazni Khan

1436 The country of the Khokars devastated . Mahmud Khalji usurps the throne of Malwa. Death of Ibrahim and accession of Mahmud Shah in Jaunpur. Death of Ahmad Bahmam and accession of Ala-ud-din Ahmad.

1437 Ala-ud-din Ahmad Bahmain establishes his authority in the Konkan.

1438 Ahmad I of Gujarat invades Malwa in the interests of Masud Khan Ghuri. Nasir Khan of Khandesh invades Berar, but is defeated by the army of the Deccan .

1440 Mahmud I of Malwa marches to Delhi, but is compelled to retire. Usurpation of Sahra Langah (Qutb-ud-din) in Multan

1441 Death of Adil Khan I and accession of Mubarak Khan in Khandesh

1442 Death of Ahmad and accession of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud in Bengal. Death of Ahmad I and accession of Muhammad I in Gujarat . Mahmud I of Gujarat invades the dominions of Kumbha, Rana of Chitor

1443 Muhammad I of Malwa retreats from Chitor and is followed by Rana Kumbha, but defeats him. Devaraya II of Vijayanagar invades the Deccan, but is expelled

1444 Death of Muhammad Shah and accession of Alain Shah. War between Malwa and Jaunpur. Death of Ranmall and expulsion of the Rahtors from Mewar. Accession of Jodha Rahtor.

1445 Mahmud I of Malwa marches to Kalpi. Battle between his forces and those of Mahmud of Jaunpur.

1446 War between Gujarat and Rana Kumbha). Mahmud I of Mawa again invades the dominions of RanaKumbha. Defeat of the Foreigners of the army of the Deccan in the Konkan. Massacre of the Foreigners by the Deccanis at Chakan

1447 Alam Shah decides to make Budaun his residence

1448 'Alain Shah retires to Budaun. Chachakdeo Jadon succeeds as Rawal of Jaisalmer

1450 Mahmud I of Malwa invades Gujarat

1451 Buhlul Lodi ascends the throne, which 'Alam Shah resigns to him. Death of Muhammad I and accession of Qutb-ud-din in Gujarat. Qutb-ud-din defeats Mahmud I of Malwa

1452 Mahmud Shah of .Jaunpur attacks Delhi, but is defeated by Buhlul.

1453 Defeat of the army of Gujarat at Nagaur by Rana Kumbha

1454 Mahmud I raids the Hara Rajputs and collects tribute from Daud Khan of Bavana. He invades the Deccan, but is obliged to retire

1455 Mahmud I lays waste the country of Rana Kumbha, and recovers Ajmer

1456 Qutb-ud-din of Gujarat invades and ravages the dominions of Rana Kumbha. Rebellion of Jalal Khan and Sikandar Khan in Telingana, Mahmud I of Malwa invades the Deccan but retires.
Death of Qutb-ud-din and accession of Husain I in Multan

1457 Death of Mahmud Shah of Jaunpur and accession of Muhammad Shah : Muhammad makes peace with Buhlul Lodi. Renewal of hostilities. Death of Adil Khan I and accession ofAdil Khan II in Khandesh. Qutb-ud-dlu again invades the dominions of the Rana.

1458 Death of Muhammad Shall of Jaunpur and accession of Husain Shah. Death of Qutb-ud-din and accession of Daud in Gujarat. Deposition of Daud and enthronement of Mahmud I, Begarha . Death of Ala-ud-din Ahmad and accession of lHumayun Bahmani. Suppression of the rebellion of Jalal Khan and Sikandar Khan

1459 Jodha Rahtor founds Jodhpur

1460 Death of Mahmud and accession of Rukn-ud-din Barbak Shah in Bengal

1461 Death of Humayun Bahmani and accession of Nizam Shah Bahmani

1462 Mahmud I of Malwa invades the Deccan, and Mahmud Begarha of Gujarat marches to the assistance of Nizam Shah of the Deccan

1463 Mahmud I of Malwa again invades the Deccan, but is compelled by Mahmud Begarha of Gujarat to retire . Death of Nizam Shah Bahmani and accession of Muhammad III in the Deccan

1465 Mahmud I of Malwa besieges Rana Kumbha in Kumbhalgarh

1466 Expedition of Husain Shah of Jaunpur against Man Singh of Gwalior. Treaty of peace between Muhammad III of the Deccan and Mahmud I of Malwa

1467 Muhammad III of the Deeean unsuccessfully attempts to recover Kherla. Mahmud I of Malwa receives an envoy from Abu Said the Timurid

1468 Mahmud I of Malwa raids Kachwara and captures Karahra. Assassination of Rana Kumbha and accession of Jaimall

1469 Death of Mahmud I of Malwa and accession of Ghiyas-ud-din. Mahmud Gavan marches into the Konkan to re-establish the authority of Muhammad II J Bahmani

1470 Death of Zain-ul-'Abidin and accession of Haidar Shah in Kashmir. Mahmud Begarha of Gujarat captures Girnar and compels the Chudasama chief to accept Islam

1471 Mahmud Begarha of Gujarat invades Sind

1472 Buhlul Lodi marches against Husain Shah Langah of Multan. Death of Haidar Shah and accession of Hasan Shah in Kashmir. Mahmud Gavan returns to Bidar after having re-established the authority of Muhammad III Bahmani in the Konkan. Malik Hasan invades Orissa, re-establishes the Raja, and captures Rajamundry for Muhammad III Bahmani. Belgaum is taken and the Raja, Birkana, is deposed. Famine in the Deccan

1473 Husain Shah of Jaunpur appears before Delhi, but is defeated by Buhlul Lodi. Mahmud Begarha of Gujarat destroys the temple of Dwarka

1474 Husain of Jaunpur again invades the kingdom of Delhi, but is defeated and compelled to retire. Death of Barbak and accession of Shams-ud-din Yusuf in Bengal

1476 Husain of Jaunpur again invades the kingdom of Delhi, but is defeated at Sikhera, and retires to Etawah. Muhammad III Bahmani, invades Telingana

1478 Death of 'Alam Shah in Badaun. Muhammad III, Bahmani, invades Orissa and compels the Raja of Jajpur to submit to him. Muhammad III recovers Rajamundry.

1479 Husain of Jaunpur again invades the kingdom of Delhi, but is defeated and pursued by Buhlul, who recovers Etawah, invades Jaunpur, expels Husain and annexes the kingdom of Jaunpur . Muhammad III, Bahmani, invades the Carnatic

1480 Subdivision of the four tarafs, or provinces, of the Deccan into eight. Conspiracy against Mahmud Gavan. Sangram Shah, Gond, succeeds in Garha-Katanga

1481 Death of Yusuf and accession of Sikandar. Deposition of Sikandar and accession of Jalal-ud-din Fath Shah in Bengal. Murder of Mahmud Gavan in the Deccan

1482 Death of Muhammad III and accession of Mahmud Bahmani

1484 Mahmud Begarha of Gujarat captures Champaner

1486 Buhlul places his son, Barbak, on the throne of Jaunpur. Assassination of Fath Shah and usurpation of Barbak, the eunuch, in Bengal. Death of Barbak and accession of Malik Indil, Firuz
Shah in Bengal. Man Singh Parihar succeeds as Raja of Gwalior

1488 Death of Jodha Rahtor and succession of Surajmall

1489 Death of Buhlul and accession of Sikandar Shah. Death of Firuz and accession of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud in Bengal. Death of Hasan Shah and accession of Muhammad Shah. Deposition of Muhammad Shah and accession of Fath Shah in Kashmir

1490 Murder of Mahmud and usurpation of Sidi Badr, Muzaffar Shah, in Bengal. Ahmad Nizan-ul-Mulk of Ahmadnagar, Yusuf 'Adil Khan of Bijapur, and Fathulah 'Imad-ul-Mulk of Berar declare their independence. Qasim Band becomes lieutenant of the Bahmani kingdom

1491 Rebellion of Bahadur Gilani in the Konkan.

1493 Death of Muzaffar and accession of 'Ala-ud-din Husain in Bengal. Mahmud Begarha of Gujarat complains to Mahmud Bahmani of the depredations of Bahadur Gilani

1494 Sikandar Lodi defeats Husain of Jaunpur and pursues him into Bihar. Bahadur Gilani is defeated and slain in the Konkan

1497 Restoration of Muhammad Shah in Kashmir (

1498 Husain Shah of Bengal invades Assam Restoration of Fath Shah in Kashmir

1499 Sikandar Lodi marches from Jaunpur to Sambhal. Restoration of Muhammad Shah in Kashmir

1500 Death of Husain, the deposed king of Jaunpur. Abdication of Ghiyas-ud-din and accession of Nasir-ud-din in Malwa

1501 Death of 'Adil Khan II and accession of Dilud Khan in Khandesh

1502 Death of Husain I and accession of Mahmud in Multan

1503 Nasir-ud-din of Malwa raids the dominions of the Rana

1504 Death of Qasim Band at Bidar, and succession of his son, Amir 'Añi Barid. Death of Fathullah 'Imad-ul-Mulk in Berar, and accession of his son 'Ala-ud-din 'Imad Shah. Yusuf 'Adil Shah attempts to establish the Shiah religion in Bijapur but is expelled from his kingdom by a confederacy

1505 Sikandar Lodi captures Mandrael. Earthquake in Agra. Campaign in Gwalior. Sikandar Lodi captures Utgir (pp. 242-3). Yusuf 'Adil Shah returns to Bijapur

1506 The Portuguese established at Cochin

1507 The Portuguese established on Socotra

1508 Sikandar Lodi captures Narwar. Death of Daud and accession of Ghazni Khan in Khandesh. Death of Ghazni Khan and disputed succession until 'Alam Khan ('Adil Khan III) is installed by Mahmud Begarha of Gujarat. Death of Rana Raimall and accession of Sangrama Singh

1509 Death of Ahmad Nizam Shah and accession of his son, Burhan Nizam Shah I in Ahmadnagar. Accession of Krishnadevantya of Vijayanagar

1510 Death of Yusuf 'Adil Shah and accession of his son, Ismail 'Adil Shah, in Bijapur. Death of Khvaja Jahan at Parenda. The Portuguese capture Goa. Ismail 'Adil Shah recovers it, but is shortly afterwards expelled by the Portuguese. Krishnaraya of Vijayanagar invades Bijapur and annexes the Raichur Doab

1511 Death of Mahmud I (Begarha) of Gujarat, and accession of Muzaffar II. Death of Nasir-ud-din and accession of Mahmud II in Malwa

1512 Dominance of the Rajputs and rebellion of the Muslim nobles in Malwa. Sultan Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk declares his independence in Telingana

1513 Sikandar Lodi sends an expedition into Malwa.

1514 Mahmud II returns to Mandu and submits to the dominance of the Rajputs. Amir 'Ali Barid, Mahmud Shah Bahmani, Burhan Nizam Shah I, and Sultan Quli Qutb Shah invade Bijapur, but are defeated by Ismail 'Adil Shah, who captures Mahmud Bahmani, Amir 'Ali Barid recovers possession of Mahmud

1516 'The Rape of the Virgins.' Death of Surajmall and accession of Ganga Rahtor in Marwar

1517 Death of Sikandar and accession of Ibrahim Shah Lodi. Rebellion of Jalal Khan. Mahmud II of Malwa flees from Mandu and seeks the help of Muzaffar II of Gujarat against the Rajputs

1518 Death of Husain Shah and accession of Nasir-ud-din Nusrat Shah in Bengal. Muzaffar II of Gujarat captures Mandu, massacres the Rajputs and restores Mahmud II. Death of Mahmud and accession of Ahmad Shah Bahmani in Bidar. Burhan Nizam Shah I invades Berar and captures Pathri. Ibrahim Lodi captures Gwalior from Bikramajit Tomar

1519 Rana Sangrama Singh defeats and captures Mahmud II of Malwa near Gagraun

1521 Muzaffar II of Gujarat and Mahmud II of Malwa invade the dominions of Rana Sangrama Singh and besiege Mandasor. Death of Ahmad and accession of 'Ala-ud-din Shall Bahmani. Ismail 'Adil Shah attempts to recover the Raichur Doab, but is defeated. Shah Beg Arghun conquers Sind.

1522 Deposition of 'Ala-ud-din and accession of Wali-Ullah Shah Bahmani

1524 Bahadur, son of Muzaffar II, leaves Gujarat and visits Rajasthan, Mewat, Delhi, and Jaunpur. Alliance between Ismai l Adil Shah and Burhan Nizam Shah I. Death of Shah Beg Arghun and accession of his son, Shah Husain, in Sind

1525 Deposition of Wali-Ullah and accession of Kalimullah Shah Bahmani. Burhan Nizam Shah I, Ala-ud-din Imad Shah, and Amir 'Ali Barid invade Bijapur, but are defeated and expelled

1526 Battle of Panipat. Defeat and death of Ibrahim Lodi. Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur ascends the throne of Delhi. Deposition of Muhammad Shah and accession of Ibrahim I in Kashmir. Death of Muzaffar II in Gujarat, and accession of Sikandar. Assassination of Sikandar and accession of Bahadur. Mahmud II of Malwa harbours the fugitive prince, Chand Khan of Gujarat

1527 Death of Ibrahim I and enthronement of Nazuk Shah in Kashmir. Flight of Kalimullah Shah Bahmani to Bijapur, and, later, to Ahmadnagar. Accession of Amir Ali Barid Shah in Bidar. Burhan Nizam Shah I and Ali Barid Shah invade Berar and expel 'Ala-ud-din Imad Shah, who appeals for help to Bahadur of Gujarat

1528 The Portuguese reach Bengal. Bahadur of Gujarat invades the Deccan. Mirza Shah Husain Arghun captures Multan).

1529 Deposition of Nazuk Shah and restoration of Muhammad in Kashmir. Bahadur of Gujarat retires from the Deccan

1530 Death of Babur and accession of Humayun. The Portuguese capture Daman, Ismail 'Adil Shah captures Amir Ali Barid and recovers the Raichur Doab. Death of Krishnadevaraya and accession of Achyuta in Vijayanagar

1531 Failure of a Portuguese attempt to capture Diu. Bahadur of Gujarat, assisted by Muhammad of Khandesh, captures Mandu and annexes the kingdom of Malwa. Burhan Nizam Shah I and Amir 'Ali Barid Shah invade Bijapur but are defeated and expelled by Asad Khan Lari

1532 Operations against the Rajputs in Malwa

1533 Assassination of Nusrat Shah and accession of Ala-ud-din Firuz Shah in Bengal. Invasion of Kashmir by Sultan Said Khan of Kashghar and Mirza Haidar. Bahadur of Gujarat captures Chitor.

1534 Death of Muhammad Shah and accession of Shams-ud-din II in Kashmir. Death of Ismail and accession of Mallu Adil Shah. Accession of Rana Udai Singh

1535 Humayun captures Mandu and invades Gujarat. Deposition of Mallu and accession of Ibrahim 'Adil Shah I. The Sunni religion is established in Bijapur

1536 Humayun is compelled to retire from Gujarat. Qadir Khan assumes the royal title in Malwa. Asad Khan Lari invades Vijayanagar, but is defeated

1537 Bahadur of Gujarat is drowned at Diu. Accession of Muhammad II (of Khandesh). Death of Muhammad II and accession of Mahmud III. Burhan Nizam Shah I establishes the Shiah religion in Ahmadnagar

1538 Sher Khan occupies Gaur and assumes the royal title in Bengal. Humayun occupies Gaur. The Ottoman fleet and the army of Gujarat unsuccessfully besiege the Portuguese in Diu.

1539 Humayun retires from Bengal and Sher Khan recovers the sovereignty. Sher Shah ascends the throne of Delhi.

1540 Khizr Khan assumes sovereignty in Bengal, but is overthrown and imprisoned by Sher Khan. Death of Shams-ud-din and restoration of Nazuk Shah in Kashmir. Conquest of Kashmir by Mirza Haidar. Khengar is established as Rao of ditch, and Rawal as Jam of Mawanagar

1542 Sher Shah invades Malwa, receives the submission of Qadir Shah, and appoints Haji Khan governor of Malwa. Haji Khan is recalled and Shujaat Khan is appointed governor of Malwa. Death of Amir Ali Barid and accession of Ali Barid Shah in Bidar

1543 Assassination of Sultan Quli and accession of Jamshid Qutb Shah in Golconda. Jamshid, Burban Nizam Shah, Ali Barid Shah, and a Hindu army invade Bijapur, but are expelled

1544 Burhan Nizam Shah I invades Bijapur, but is defeated and expelled

1545 Death of Sher Shah and accession of Islam Shah in Delhi. Failure of a conspiracy to depose Ibrahim 'Adil Shah I and place his brother, 'Abdullah, on the throne

1546 Rout of the army of Gujarat before Diu. Death of Asad Khan Lari

1547 The Portuguese burn Broach and massacre the inhabitants. Alliance between Burhan Nizam Shah I and Sadashivaraya of Vijayanagar. War between Ahmadnagar and Bijapur

1550 Death of Jamshid Qutb Shah and accession of Subhan Quli Qutb Shah in Golconda. Deposition of Subhan Quli and accession of Ibrahim Qutb Shah

1551 Defeat and death of Mirza Haidar and restoration of Nazuk Shah in Kashmir

1552 Death of Islam Shah and accession of Muhammad Adil Shah in Delhi. Deposition of Nazuk Shah and enthronement of Ibrahim II in Kashmir. Sadashivaraya of Vijayanagar with the help of Burhan Nizam Shah I recovers the Raichur Doab. Death of Burhan Nizam Shah I and accession of Husain Nizam Shah I in Ahmadnagar

1553 Accession of Ibrahim Shah in Delhi.

1554 Accession of Sikandar Shah in Delhi. Death of Mahmud III and accession of Ahmad II in Gujarat. War between Bijapur and Ahmadnagar

1555 Humayun recovers the throne of Delhi. Deposition of Ibrahim II and accession of Isma'il in Kashmir. Death of Shujaat Khan and accession of Baz Bahadur in Malwa. Rebellion of Saif 'Ain-ul-Mulk in Bijapur

1556 Death of Humayun and accession of Akbar. Muhammad Isa Tarkhan becomes ruler of Sind .

1557 Death of Ismail and accession of Habib Shah in Kashmir

1558 Death of Ibrahim Adil Shah I and accession of Ali Adil Shah I. Re-establishment of the Shiah religion in Bijapur. Ali allies himself with Vijayanagar, and is attacked by Husain Nizam Shah I and IbiTihlm Qutb Shah, of whom he rids his state. Husain Nizam Shah attacks Chaul, but makes peace with the Portuguese

1559-60 Aliyarama Raya of Vijayanagar, Ali Adil Shah I and Ibrahim Qutb Shah invade Ahmadnagar. Humiliation of the Muslims

1561 Deposition of Habib and usurpation of Ghazi Khan Chakk in Kashmir. Akbar annexes Malwa. Death of Darya 'Imad Shah and accession of Burhan 'Imad Shah

1562 Assassination of Ahmad II and accession of Muzaffar III in Gujarat. Ali Adil Shah I and Aliyarama Raya defeat Husain Nizam Shah I and Ibrahim Qutb Shah.

1563 Aliyarama Raya and Ali Adil Shah invade Ahmadnagar, but retire during the rainy season

1563-4 Abdication of Ghazi Khan and accession of Nasir-ud-din Husain Shah in Kashmir

1564 Husain Nizam Shah I, Ali Adil Shah I, Ibrahim Qutb Shah, and Ali Barid Shah form a confederacy against Vijayanagar. The four kings assemble at Sholapur and march to Talikota

1565 Battle of Talikota. Overthrow of the kingdom of Vijayanagar. Death of Husain Nizam Shah I and accession of Murtaza Nizam Shah I

1566 Ali Adil Shah I and Murtaza Nizam Shah I invade Berar

1567 War between Bijapur and Ahmadnagar. Accession of Mirza Muhammad Baqi Tarkhan in Sind

1568 The Mirzas at Broach. Itimad Khan invites Akbar to invade Gujarat

1569 League between Ali Adil Shah I, Murtaza Nizam Shah I and the Zamorin of Calicut against the Portuguese

1569-70 Deathof Husain and accession of Ali Shah in Kashmir Ali Adil Shah I besieges Goa and Murtaza Nizam Shah 1I besieges Chaul. Both are defeated

1571 Ali Adil Shah I and Murtuza Nizam Shah I make treaties with Portugal

1572 Akbar annexes Gujarat

1574 Murtaza Nizam Shah I annexes Berar

1575 Conquests of Ali Adil Shah I in the Carnatic

1577 Akbar's troops invade Khandesh. Submission of Raja 'Ali Khan

1578 Murtaza Nizam Shah I and Ibrahim Qutb Shah attack Bidar. Ali Barid Shah obtains the assistance of Ali Adil Shah I and the siege is raised

1579 Death of Ali and accession of Yusuf in Kashmir. Rebellion of Prince Burhan-ud-din in Ahmadnagar. He flees and takes refuge at the court of Akbar. Death of Ali Band Shah and accession of Ibrahim Barid Shah in Bidar

1580 Death of Ali Adil Shah I and accession of Ibrahim Adil Shah II in Bijapur. War between Ahmadnagar and Bijapur. Defeat of the army of Ahmadnagar. Death of Ibrahim Qutb Shah and accession of Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah in Golconda. Disturbed condition of Bijapur

1582 Dilavar Khan becomes supreme in Bijapur. He establishes the Sunni religion

1585 Death of MirzaMuhammad Bilqi Tarkhan and accession of Mirza Jam Beg Tarkhan in Sind

1588 Murder of Murtaza Nizam Shah I and accession of Husain Nizam Shah II in Ahmadnagar

1589 Deposition of Husain Nizam Shah II and enthronement of Ismail Nizam Shah in Ahmadnagar

1591 Burhan-ud-din defeats his son, Ismail Nizam Shah and ascends the throne in Ahmadnagar as Burhan Nizam Shah II. Abd-ur-Rahim, the Khan Khanan, conquers Sind

1592 Burhan Nizam Shah II attacks the Portuguese in Chaul, and is defeated (p. 462).

1595 Death of Durban Nizam Shah II and accession of Ibrahim Nizam Shah. War between Ahmadnagar and Bijapur and death of Ibrahim Nizam Shall. Accession of Bahadur Nizam Shah. Civil war in Ahmadnagar. Four parties, each acknowledging a different king. Akbar's intervention invited. Sultan Murad and the Khan Khanan open the siege of Ahmadnagar

1596 Chand Bibi cedes Berar to Akbar and the imperial army raises the siege of Ahmadnagar. Renewal of hostilities

1599 Sultan Daniyal is appointed by Akbar to the command in the Deccan

1603 Murder of Chand Bibi. The imperial troops take Ahmadnagar. Bahadur Nizam Shah is imprisoned. Accession of Murtaza Nizam Shah II




1280 Establishment of the Toungoo State

1281 Wareru establishes himself in Martaban

1287 Kyawswa succeeds in Pagan.

Wareru founds the town of Martaban, overcomes and executes Tarubya governor of Pegu, and becomes ruler of the Talaing state of Pegu

1297 Investiture of Kyawswa by the Emperor of China

1298 The Three Shan Brothers establish their rule in Upper Burma.

Kyawswa is compelled to take the robe.

Recognition of the Talaing state of Pegu by China.

1312 Thihathu, the surviving Shan Brother, establishes himself at Pinya.

1353 Accession of Binnya U in Martaban

1364 The Maw Shans capture Sagaing and Pinya. Thadominbya, after their departure, establishes himself at Ava

1368 Death of Thadominbya and accession of Minkyiswasawke.

Accession of Pyanchi, Lord of Toungoo.

1374 Minkyiswasawke sends his uncle, Sawmungyi, to Arakan as king

1377 Murder of Pyanchi, Lord of Toungoo

1385 Death of Binnya U and accession of Razadarit, who establishes himself in Pegu

1390 Razadarit captures Myaungmya

1401 Death of Minkyiswasawke and accession of Minhkaung

1404 Minhkaung invades Arakan

1406 The Burmese overrun Mohnyin.

Razadarit invades the kingdom of Ava, but retires

1407 Capture of the Burmese garrison of Launggyet and execution of Anawrahtaminsaw. Minhkaung invades the Delta and is defeated

1413 Minrekyawswa defeats a marauding army from Hsenwi

1415 Minrekjawswa subjugates the Delta

1417 Death of Minrekyawswa. End of the war between Ava and Pegu

1422 Death of Minhkaung and accession of his son Thihathu in Ava

1423 Death of Razadarit

1426 Assassination of Thihathu and accession of Kalekyetaungnyo in Ava

1427 Accession of Mohnyinthado in Ava

1440 Death of Mohnyinthado and accession of Minrekyawswa in Ava

1443 Death of Minrekyawswa and accession of Narapati in Ava

1450 Accession of Binnyakyan in Pegu

1453 Death of Binnyakyan and accession of Shinsawbu, the Old Queen, in Pegu

1469 Death of Narapati and acression of Thihathura in Ava

1472 Accession of Dammazedi in Pegu.

1475 Mission of 22 monks from Pegu to Ceylon

1481 Death of Thihathura and accession of Minlikaung in Ava

1486 Accession of Minkyinyo, Lord of Toungoo

1492 Death of Dammaxedi and accession of Binnyaran in Pegu

1500 Rise of Burmese vernacular literature.

1502 Death of Minlikaung and accession of Shwenankyawshin in Ava

1510 Foundation of the modern town of Toungoo

1519 The Portuguese found a trading station at Martaban

1526 Death of Binnyaran and accession of Takayutpi in Pegu

1527 Invasion of Ava by the Shuns. Death of Shwenankyawshin and accession of Thohanbwa

1531 Death of Minkyinyo, Lord of Toungoo

1539 Extinction of the Pegu kingdom

1543 Assassination of Thohanbwa and accession of Hkonmaing in Ava

1546 Death of Hkonmaing and accession of Mobye Narapati in Ava

1552 Flight of Mobye Narapati and accession of Sithukyawhtin in Ava



1213 The Kalinga prince Magha ascends the throne in Polonnaruva under the title of Kalinga Vijaya-Bahu

1227 Accession of Vijaya-Bahu III in Jambudoni (Dambadeniya)

1231 Accession of Parakkama-Bahu II in Dambadeniya

1234 Death of Kalinga Vijaya-Bahu

1235 Second coronation festival of Parakkama-Bahu II in Polonnaruva

1265 Death of Parakkama-Bahu II and accession of Vijaya-Bahu IV in Dambadeniya

1268 Assassination of Vijaya-Bahu IV (Bosat Vijaya-Bahu) and accession of Bhuvaneka-Bahu I to the throne of Dambadeniya

1279 Death of Bhuvaneka-Bahu I. Famine in Ceylon

1280 Removal of the Tooth-relic by Aryachakravarti of Jaffna and its delivery to Maravarman Tribhuvana-chakravartin Kulaçekharadeva the Pandya

1281 Accession of Parakkama-Bahu III and recovery of the Tooth-relic

1288 Deposition of Parakkama-Bahu III and accession of Bhuvaneka-Bahu II

1291 Death of Bhuvaneka-Bahu II and accession of Parakkama-Bahu IV (Pandita Parakkama-Bahu II) in Kuninagala

1326 Death of Parakkaina-Bahu IV and accession of Bhuvaneka-Bahu III (Vanni Bahuttneka-Bahu)

1346 Accession of Bhuvaneka-Bahu IV in Gangayripura (Gampola)

1352 Death of Bhuvaneka-Bahu IV and accession of Panikkama-Bahu V

1359 Death of Parakkama-Bahu V and accession of Vikkama-Bahu III

1374 Death of Vikkama-Bahu III and accession of Bhuvaneka-Bahu V

1390 Vira-Bahu II ascends the throne of Gampola and Kotte

1395 Convocation of Buddhist priests, presided over by Dhammakitti II

1397 Vira-Alakegvara (Vijaya-Balhu VI) returns from Southern India, ousts his brother, Vira-Bahu II, from Kotte and ascends the throne there

1405 The Chinese eunuch Tcheng Houo visits Ceylon for the purpose of removing the Tooth-relic, but is plundered by Vira-Alakegvara

1409 Tcheng Houo returns to Ceylon with an army and captures Vira-Alakecvara and his family

1411-2 Vira-Alakeçvara and his family are released by the Chinese, but are murdered on their return to Ceylon

1414 Parakkama-Bahu VI ascends the throne at Kotte

1466 Death of Parakkama-Bahu VI and accession of Jaya-Bahu II (Jaya Vira Parakkama-Bahu) in Kotte

1468 Death of Jaya-Bahu II and accession of Bhuvaneka-Bahu VI in Kotte

1476 Death of Bhuvaneka-Bahu VI and accession of Parakkama-Bahu VII (Pandita Parakkama-Bahu) in Kotte

1484 Death of Parakkama-Bahu VII and accession of Parakkama-Bahu VIII in Kotte

1505 Death of Parakkama-Bahu VIII and accession of Parakkama-Bahu IX (Dhamma Parakkama-Bahu) in Kotte

1506 Arrival of the Portuguese at Colombo

1527 Death of Parakkama-Bahu IX