J. B. BURY’ THE CAMBRIDGE MEDIEVAL HISTORY

VOLUME VII

DECLINE OF EMPIRE AND PAPACY

 

INTRODUCTION. C. W. Previte-Orton

CHAPTER I. ITALY IN THE TIME OF DANTE. Edward Armstrong

CHAPTER II. ITALY, 1313-1414. Romolo Caggese

CHAPTER III GERMANY, 1273-1313. (A) P. J. Blok (B) W. T. Waugh

CHAPTER IV. GERMANY: LEWIS THE BAVARIAN. W. T. Waugh

CHAPTER V. GERMANY: CHARLES IV. W. T. Waugh

CHAPTER VI. BOHEMIA IN THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. Kamil kofta

CHAPTER VII. THE SWISS CONFEDERATION IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Paul E. Martin

CHAPTER VIII. THE HANSA. A. Weiner

CHAPTER IX. THE TEUTONIC ORDER. Alexander Bruce Boswell

CHAPTER X. THE POPES OF AVIGNON AND THE GREAT SCHISM. Guillaume Mollat

CHAPTER XI. FRANCE: THE LAST CAPETIANS. Hilda Johnstone

CHAPTER XII. FRANCE: THE HUNDRED YEARS’ WAR (TO 1380) A. Coville

CHAPTER XIII. FRANCE: ARMAGNACS AND BURGUNDIANS (1380-1422) A. Coville.

CHAPTER XIV. ENGLAND: EDWARD I AND EDWARD II. Hilda Johnstone

CHAPTER XV. ENGLAND: EDWARD III AND RICHARD II. Bernard L. Manning

CHAPTER XVI WYCLIF. Bernard L. Manning

CHAPTER XVII. WALES, 1066 TO 1485. J. E. Lloyd

CHAPTER XVIII. IRELAND TO 1315. Goddard H. Orpen

CHAPTER XIX. SCOTLAND TO 1328. C. Sanford Terry

CHAPTER XX. SPAIN, 1252-1410. Rafael Altamira

CHAPTER XXI. RUSSIA, 1015-1462. D. S. Mirsky.

CHAPTER XXII. THE JEWS IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Cecil Roth

CHAPTER XXIII. MEDIEVAL ESTATES. C. H. McIlwain

CHAPTER XXIV. PEASANT LIFE AND RURAL CONDITIONS (c. 1100 TO c. 1500). Eileen E. Power

CHAPTER XXV. THE EARLY RENAISSANCE. Arthur A.Tilley

CHAPTER XXVI. MEDIEVAL MYSTICISM. Evelyn Underhill

 

NICE READING

A hundred years of history; from record and chronicle 1216-1327

Medieval France; a companion to French studies

Petrarch : a sketch of his life and works

Dante Alighieri, apostle of freedom

Le cardinal Bessarion (1403-1472) étude sur le chrétienté et la renaissance

The treatise of Lorenzo Valla on the Donation of Constantine

Brunelleschi (1377-1446)

Life of St. Stephen Harding: abbot of Citeaux and founder of the Cistercian order

St Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109)

The Life and Times of Saint Bernard, Abbot of Clairvaux. A.D. 1091-1153

Life of St Francis of Assisi (1182—1226)

St. Gertrude the Great (1256-1301)

Saint Catherine of Siena and her times (1347-80)

St. Bridget of Sweden (1303-1373) ; a chapter of mediaeval church history

Thomas à Kempis (1380-1471) and the Brothers of the common life Volume 1

Thomas à Kempis (1380-1471) and the Brothers of the common life Volume 2

Saint Catherine of Siena and her times (1347-80)

St Bernardino of Siena (1380-1444)

Aspects of Christian Mysticism

The Cloud of unknowing

Jacopone da Todi, poet and mystic-1228-1306, a spiritual biography

John of Roysbroeck. The adornment of the spiritual marriage ; The sparkling stone ; The book of supreme truth

 

 

 

 

 

CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF LEADING EVENTS MENTIONED IN THIS VOLUME

 

521-97 St Columba.

844 Kenneth MacAlpin unites the Scots and Picts.

976 1014 Brian Borumha, King of Munster.

1018 Malcolm II adds Lothian to the Kingdom of Scotland.

1019-54 Yaroslav, Great Prince of Kiev.

1096 Treaties of Lyúbech between the princes of the house of Rurik.

Wholesale massacres of Jews in France and Germany.

1124-53 David I, King of Scots.

1143 German colonists begin moving east of the Elbe en masse.

1144 Belief that William of Norwich was martyred by the Jews begins the “blood-accusation.”

1170 Strongbow begins the Norman conquest of Ireland.

1171 Henry II of England recognised as “Lord of Ireland.”

1188 The Cortes of Leon contain representatives of the cities.

1189 Pope Clement III declares the Scottish Church filia specialis of the Roman See.

190 Massacre of the Jew's at York.

1194-1240 Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Wales.

1204 Bishop Albert’s crusading Order in Livonia founded.

1210-39 Herman of Salza, Grandmaster of the Teutonic Order.

1215 Badges for the Jews prescribed in the Fourth Lateran Council.

1224 The Mongols defeat the Russians at the Kalka.

1228-30 The Teutonic Order enters Prussia.

1232 Frederick II summons representatives of the towns to a general assembly in Sicily

1237 Union of the Knights of the Sword with the Teutonic Order.

1240 Batu the Mongol destroys Kiev.

1241 Battle of Liegnitz.

1242 Batu founds the Khanate of the Golden Horde.

Alexander Nevsky defeats the Teutonic Order on Lake Peipus.

1254 Knights of the Shire summoned to the English Parliament.

1256-63 Alfonso X the Learned of Castile draws up the Siete Partidas.

1258-82 Llvwelyn ap Gruffydd, Prince of Wales.

1259 Treaty of Paris between France and England.

1263 Cession of the Hebrides to Scotland by Norway.

1265 Representatives of boroughs summoned to the English Parliament.

1266-85 Charles I of Anjou, King of Sicily.

1270-85 Philip III the Bold, King of France.

1271 Death of Alphonse of Poitou and Toulouse.

1271-76 Gregory X, Pope.

1272-1307 Edward I, King of England.

1273-91 Rudolf I of Habsburg, King of the Romans. Close of Interregnum

1274 Rudolf surrenders Romagna, Ancona, and Spoleto to the Papacy

1275 Second General Council of Lyons. Union of Latin and Greek Churches

1276-85 Peter III the Great, King of Aragon.      

1277-80 Nicholas III, Pope.

1278Defeat and death of Ottokar II of Bohemia on the Marchfeld

The Statute of Gloucester (Quo Warranto).

1279Rudolf renounces all imperial claims on the Papal State and Sicily

Statute of Mortmain.

1282 Rudolf creates his sons Albert and Rudolf Dukes of Austria and Styria.

1282-1302 The War of the Sicilian Vespers.

1282 Separation of Naples and Sicily. Peter III of Aragon, King of Sicily.

1282-83 Edward I conquers the principality of Wales.

1282      Peter III of Aragon grants the Privilegio General.

1283      The subjection of Prussia completed by the Teutonic Order.

1285-1309 Charles II, King of Naples.

1285-1314 Philip IV the Fair, King of France.

1285      Champagne united to the French Crown.

Statute of Winchester.

Second Statute of Westminster (De Donis Conditionalibus).

1286      Edward I issues writ Circumspeete agatis.

1288      Peace of Caiifranc between Aragon and the Pope.

Alfonso III of Aragon grants the Privilegio de la Union.

1288-92 Nicholas IV, Pope.

1289      Battle of Campaldino.

1290      Expulsion of the Jews from England.

Third Statute of Westminster (Quia Emptores).

Death of Margaret, Queen of Scots (the Maid of Norway).

1291-1327 James II, King of Aragon.

1291 Loss of Acre. End of Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Edward I of England acknowledged as suzerain of Scotland.

The Confederation of the Three Forest Cantons founds Switzerland.

1292-98 Adolf of Nassau, King of the Romans.

1292      John Balliol becomes King of Scots.

1293      Ordinances of J ustice at Florence.

1294      Philip IV seizes Gascony.

Celestine V, Pope.

Treaty of Tonsberg between the Hansa and Norway.

1294-1303 Boniface VIII, Pope.

1295      The “Model” Parliament.

Peace of Anagni between Aragon, Naples, the Pope, and France.

Alliance of France and Scotland begins.

Matteo Visconti becomes despot of Milan.

1296 Boniface VIII issues the bull Clericis laicos.

Edward 1 annexes Scotland to England.

1296-1337 Frederick II, King of Sicily.

1297      Temporary reconciliation of Boniface VIII and Philip IV.

Edward I confirms the Charters with additions.

Closing of the Great Council at Venice.

First Irish Parliament summoned.

1297-1305 Sir William Wallace leads Scottish War of Independence.

1298      Defeat of Venetians by Genoese at Curzola.

Edward I defeats Wallace at Falkirk.

1298-1308 Albert I of Austria, King of the Romans.

1299      Battle of Falconaria.

1300      The Papal Jubilee.

1300-1 Expulsion of Whites from Florence. Exile of Dante.

1301      Edward I creates his eldest son Edward Prince of Wales.

1302      Renewed hostility of Boniface VIII and Philip IV.

Battle of Courtrai. Philip IV holds “States General” at Paris.

Matteo Visconti deposed. Guido della Torre, despot of Milan.

Peace of Caltabellotta.

Boniface VIII issues Unam sanctam.

1303      Edward I issues the Carta Mercatoria.

Peace of Paris between Edward I and Philip IV.

 Capture of Boniface VIII at Anagni.

1303-4 Benedict XI, Pope.

1305      Treaty of Athis-sur-Orge between Philip IV and the Flemings.

1305-14 Clement V, Pope. Papacy transferred to France.

1306      Robert I Bruce crowned King of Scots. He continues War of Inde­pendence.

Expulsion of the Jews from France.

1307      Lyons admits French suzerainty.

Philip IV attacks the Templars.

1307-    27 Edward II, King of England.

1308-    10 Ferrarese War and defeat of Venice by papal army.

1308-    13 Henry VII of Luxemburg, King (Emperor) of the Romans.

1309      Clement V fixes the seat of the Papacy at Avignon.

1309-    43 Robert the Wise, King of Naples.

1310-    18 The Lords Ordainers in England.

1310      Conspiracy of Tiepolo. Council of Ten instituted at Venice.

Henry VII conquers Bohemia for his son John.

1310-46 John of Luxemburg, King of Bohemia.

1310-    13 Henry VIPs Italian expedition.

1311      Clement V erases bulls against Philip IV from the papal records.

1311-    22 Second tyranny of Matteo Visconti at Milan.

1311-29 Can Grande I della Scala, despot of Verona.

1311-12 General Council of Vienne.

1312      Abolition of the Order of Knights Templars.

1313      Breach of Henry VII with Papacy. His death.

Ordinance of the Staple.

1314      Double election of Lewis IV’ of Bavaria and Frederick the Handsome of

Austria as Kings of the Romans.

Robert Bruce defeats the English at Bannockburn.

Leagues of protest formed in France against the Crown.

1314-16 Louis X Hutin, King of France.

1315      Defeat of Guelfs by Ghibellines at Montecatini in Tuscany.

The Swiss defeat Leopold of Austria at Morgarten. Renewal of Swiss Confederation.

Death of Raymond Lull.

Louis X grants charters to the Leaguers.

1316-22 Philip V the Tall, King of France.

1316-34 John XXII, Pope.

1317 Assembly at Paris declares that a woman cannot inherit the French throne.

1321      Death of Dante.

1322-28 Charles IV the Fair, King of France.

1322 Battle of Boroughbridge. Execution of Thomas Earl of Lancaster.

Parliament of York. Commons’ consent necessary to fundamental Statutes.

Lewis IV defeats and captures Frederick the Handsome at Mühldorf.

1323      John XXII issues decretal Cum inter nonnullos.

1324      John XXII declares Lewis IV deprived of the Empire.

Lewis IV declares John XXII a heretic. The Sachsenhausen Appeal.

Publication of the Defensor Pacis of Marsilio of Padua and John of Jandun.

1327 Edward II of England deposed.

1327-77 Edward III, King of England.

1327      Peace of Paris between France and England.

Death of Master Eckehart.

1327-30 Lewis IV’s Italian expedition.

1328-50 Philip VI of Valois, King of France.

Succession through males only (“Salic Law”) established.

1328      Lewis IV’s lay coronation as Emperor at Rome.

Philip VI defeats the Flemings at Cassel.

Independence of Scotland recognised by the Treaty of Northampton

Ivan I Kalita of Moscow becomes Grand Prince. P

1329-71 David II, King of Scots.

1330-31 John of Bohemia in Italy.

1330 Edward III overthrows the power of Mortimer and Isabella.

1334-42 Benedict XII, Pope.

1337      Outbreak of the Hundred Years’ War. Edward claims the French Crown.

1337-45 James van Artevelde rules Ghent.

1338      The Electors’ Declaration of Rense.

The German Diet’s ordinance (at Frankfort) Licet iuris declares the imperial election and power to be independent of the Pope.

1339      Revolution in favour of the popolo in Genoa.

1340      Edward III takes title of King of France.

Edward III defeats the French in the naval battle of Sluys.

Edward III assents to Statute forbidding taxation save by consent of Parliament.

1340-41 Edward Ill’s quarrel with Stratford, Archbishop of Canterbury.

1342      Petrarch crowned at Rome.

1342-52 Clement VI, Pope.

1342-43 Tyranny of Walter of Brienne at Florence.

1343-83 Amadeus VI (“the Green Count”), Count of Savoy.

1343-81 Joanna I, Queen of Naples.

1343      Peace of Kalisz between Casimir the Great of Poland and the Teutonic Order.

1344      Prague made an archbishopric.

1346      Renewed papal deprivation of Lewis IV.

Charles IV (of Bohemia) elected King of the Romans.

1346-78 Charles (I), King of Bohemia.

1346      Edward III defeats Philip VI at Crecy.

Defeat of the Scots at Neville’s Cross.

1347      Cola di Rienzo tribune at Rome.

Edward III captures Calais.

Death of Lewis IV.

1348      Peter IV the Ceremonious of Aragon abolishes the Privilegio de la Union.

Charles IV founds the University of Prague.

1348-50 The Black Death.

1348-49 Massacres of the Jews throughout Germany lead to their emigration to Poland, which becomes their headquarters.

1349-69 Peter I the Cruel, King of Castile.

1349Charles, eldest grandson of the King of France, becomes Dauphin.

Death of Richard Rolle.

1350-64 John II the Good, King of France.

1351 Zurich joins the Swiss Confederation.

The first Statute of Provisors in England.

1352-62 Innocent VI, Pope.

1353-63 Cardinal Albornoz restores the Papal State.

1353      Berne joins the Swiss Confederation. Boccaccio finishes the Decameron.

1354      Majorca finally becomes part of the Aragonese kingdom.

1354-78 St Alexis, Metropolitan of Russia.

1355      Etienne Marcel takes the lead in the States General.

Charles IV crowned Emperor at Rome.

1355-56 Charles IV promulgates the Golden Bull, fixing the number and powers of the Electors.

1356      The Black Prince defeats and captures John II at Poitiers (Maupertuis).

1356-58 The States General under Etienne Marcel attempt reforms.

1357      Cardinal Albornoz promulgates the Egidian Constitutions for the Papal State.

1358      The Jacquerie in France. Death of Marcel.

1360      Waldemar IV of Denmark sacks Wisby.

Treaties of Bretigny and Calais.

1361      Death of Tauler.

1362      First version of the Vision of Piers the Plowman heing written.

The English Parliament opened by a speech in English.

1362-70 Urban V, Pope.

1363      Philip the Bold made Duke of Burgundy.

c. 1364 John Milic of Kromeriz begins to preach at Prague.

1364-80 Charles V the Wise, King of France.

1365 Statute of Praemunire in England.

1367 Victory of the Black Prince at Najera.

1368-69 Charles IV’s second Italian expedition.

1369      Renewal of the Hundred Years’ War.

Henry II of Trastamara becomes finally King of Castile. Treaty of Stralsund between the Hansa and Waldemar IV.

1370      The Pfaffenbrief adopted by the Swiss Confederation.

c. 1370 Wyclif publishes De Benedictu lnearnatione.

1370-78 Gregory XI, Pope.

1371      Edward III agrees to Parliament’s petition for lay ministers of the Crown.

1372      A Castilian fleet defeats the English off La Rochelle.

1372-73 Chaucer’s first journey to Italy.

1373      Charles IV acquires Brandenhurg.

1374      Death of Petrarch.

1375      Death of Boccaccio.

1376      The Good Parliament in England.

Death of the Black Prince.

1376-78 War of the “Eight Saints” between Florence and the Papacy.

1376-80 Wenceslas, King of the Romans.

1377      Gregory XI returns to Rome.

Gregory XI condemns Wyclif’s teaching in the De Civili Dominio.

Death of Edward III.

1377-99 Richard II, King of England.

1378      Revolt of the Ciompi at Florence.

Dimitri Donskoy of Moscow defeats the Tartars at Kulikovo on the Don.

1378-89 Urban VI, Pope at Rome.

1378 The Great Schism breaks out.

1378-94 Clement VII, Pope at Avignon.

1378      Death of Charles IV.

1378-1419 Wenceslas (IV), King of Bohemia.

c. 1379 Wyclif teaches his doctrine of the Eucharist.

1379      Death of Bertrand du Guesclin.

1380      Death of St Catherine of Siena.

Genoese forces surrender at Chioggia.

c. 1380 The Lollard translation of the Bible into English in progress.

1380-82 Philip van Artevelde rules Ghent.

1380-1422 Charles VI, King of France.

1381      The Peasants’ Revolt in England.

1381-86 Charles III of Durazzo, King of Naples.

1381      Peace of Turin between Venice and Genoa.

1382      Archbishop Courtenay suppresses the Lollard party at Oxford.

Charles VI defeats the Flemings at Roosebeke.

1384      Philip the Bold of Burgundy becomes Count of Flanders and Franche Comté.

Death of Wyclif.

Death of Gerard Groote.

1385      The Portuguese defeat the Castilians at Aljubarrota.

Peace of Tournai between Philip the Bold and the Flemings

1385-1402 Gian Galeazzo Visconti, despot of Milan.

1386      The Swiss defeat Rudolf IV of Austria at Sempach.

1386-1414 Ladislas, King of Naples.

1388 The Merciless Parliament in England.

The Swiss defeat Albert III of Austria at Nafels.

1389 Richard II assumes full royal power.

1389-1404 Boniface IX, Pope at Rome.

1391      Massacres of the Jews cause the existence of crypto-Judaism in Spain.

1392      Charles VI of France becomes insane for the first time

Treaty of the Hansa with Novgorod (the “cross-kissing of John Niebur”).

1393      Murder of John of Nepomuk.

The Sempacherhrief promulgated by the Swiss Confederation.

The “great” Statute of Praemunire in England.

1394      Death of Matthias of Janov.

Peace between Austria and Switzerland.

1394      Benedict XIII elected Pope at Avignon.

1395      Gian Galeazzo Visconti created Duke of Milan.

1396      Truce in the Hundred Years’ War.

1396-1403 Chrysoloras teaches Greek at Florence, Milan, and Pavia.

1397      The Union of Kalmar.

1398      The Parliament of Shrewsbury. Richard II banishes Norfolk and Hereford.

France withdraws obedience from Benedict XIII.

1399      Deposition of Richard II.

1399-1413 Henry IV, King of England.

1400-8 Revolt of Owain Glyn Dwt in Wales.

1400      Deposition of Wenceslas.

1400-10 Rupert of the Rhine, King of the Romans.

1400      Death of Chaucer.

1401      Rupert, King of the Romans, defeated by the Visconti.

1402      John Hus in charge of the Bethlehem Chapel at Prague.

1403      France returns to obedience to Benedict XIII.

1404-6 Innocent VII, Pope at Rome.

1404-19 John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy.

1406      Pisa becomes subject to Florence.

Gregory XII elected Pope at Rome.

1407      Murder of Louis, Duke of Orleans. The Burgundian and Armagnac factions take shape in France.

1408 France declares neutrality between the Popes. Rise of national churches.

Revolt and union of the Cardinals of both Popes.

1409 General Council of Pisa. It deposes both Popes and elects Alexander V.

Martin I of Aragon becomes Martin II, King of Sicily.

1410 Death of Alexander V. Election of John XXIII as Pope.

Defeat of the Teutonic Order by the Poles at Tannenberg (Grunwald).

Sigismund of Luxemburg, King of Hungary, elected King of the Romans.

1412      Filippo Maria Visconti becomes Duke of Milan.

1413      Thhe Cabochian riots in Paris. The Ordonnance Cabochiemie.

1413-22 Henry V, King of England.

1414-18 General Council of Constance.

1414-60 Guarino of Verona teaches the classics at Venice, Verona, and Ferrara.

1415 The Council of Constance deposes John XXIII. Gregory XII abdicates.

Henry V defeats the French at Agincourt.

1417 The Council of Constance deposes Benedict XIII and elects Martin V Pope.

1419      Henry V captures Rouen.

Murder of John the Fearless of Burgundy at Montereau.

1419-67 Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy.

1420      Treaty of Troyes by which Henry V becomes Regent of France and heir to the throne.

1420-46 Vittorino da Feltre conducts his school of La Giocosa at Mantua.

1422 Deaths of Henry V and Charles VI.

1422-61 Charles VII, King of France.

1438 Bessarion settles in Italy.

1440 Lorenzo Valla proves the Donation of Constantine to be spurious.

1444 The Dauphin Louis invades Switzerland with the Écorcheurs.

1446 Peace of Constance.

1448-61 St Jonas, Metropolitan of Russia, independent of the Patriarch of Constantinople.

1453 Fall of Constantinople.

1457 Peace of Lübeck between the Duke of Burgundy and the Hansa.

1461-83 Louis XI, King of France.

1462 Ivan III becomes Grand Prince of all Russia.

1466 Peace of Thorn between Poland and the Teutonic Order.

1467-77 Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy.

1474 “Perpetual Peace” between Switzerland and Austria.

Treaties of Utrecht between England and the Hansa.

1476      The Swiss defeat Charles the Bold at Grandson and Morat.

1477      The Swiss defeat Charles the Bold at Nancy.

1478      Peace of Zurich.

Ivan III of Russia annexes Novgorod.

1480      Ivan III of Russia throws off the Tartar suzerainty.

1481      The Covenant of Stanz promulgated by the Swiss Confederation.

1492 Expulsion of the Jews from the Spanish dominions.

1496 Expulsion of the Jews from Portugal.

1499 Autonomy of Switzerland within the Empire recognised by the Peace of Basle.