J. B. BURY’ THE CAMBRIDGE MEDIEVAL HISTORY
DECLINE OF EMPIRE AND PAPACY
INTRODUCTION. C. W. Previte-Orton
CHAPTER I. ITALY IN THE TIME OF DANTE. Edward Armstrong
CHAPTER II. ITALY, 1313-1414. Romolo Caggese
CHAPTER III GERMANY, 1273-1313. (A) P. J. Blok (B) W. T. Waugh
CHAPTER IV. GERMANY: LEWIS THE BAVARIAN. W. T. Waugh
CHAPTER V. GERMANY: CHARLES IV. W. T. Waugh
CHAPTER VI. BOHEMIA IN THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY. Kamil kofta
CHAPTER VII. THE SWISS CONFEDERATION IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Paul E. Martin
CHAPTER VIII. THE HANSA. A. Weiner
CHAPTER IX. THE TEUTONIC ORDER. Alexander Bruce Boswell
CHAPTER X. THE POPES OF AVIGNON AND THE GREAT SCHISM. Guillaume Mollat
CHAPTER XI. FRANCE: THE LAST CAPETIANS. Hilda Johnstone
CHAPTER XIV. ENGLAND: EDWARD I AND EDWARD II. Hilda Johnstone
CHAPTER XV. ENGLAND: EDWARD III AND RICHARD II. Bernard L. Manning
CHAPTER XVI WYCLIF. Bernard L. Manning
CHAPTER XVII. WALES, 1066 TO 1485. J. E. Lloyd
CHAPTER XVIII. IRELAND TO 1315. Goddard H. Orpen
CHAPTER XIX. SCOTLAND TO 1328. C. Sanford Terry
CHAPTER XX. SPAIN, 1252-1410. Rafael Altamira
CHAPTER XXI. RUSSIA, 1015-1462. D. S. Mirsky.
CHAPTER XXII. THE JEWS IN THE MIDDLE AGES. Cecil Roth
CHAPTER XXIII. MEDIEVAL ESTATES. C. H. McIlwain
CHAPTER XXV. THE EARLY RENAISSANCE. Arthur A.Tilley
CHAPTER XXVI. MEDIEVAL MYSTICISM. Evelyn Underhill
John of Roysbroeck. The adornment of the spiritual marriage ; The sparkling stone ; The book of supreme truth
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF LEADING EVENTS MENTIONED IN THIS VOLUME
521-97 St Columba.
844 Kenneth MacAlpin unites the Scots and Picts.
976 1014 Brian Borumha, King of Munster.
1018 Malcolm II adds Lothian to the Kingdom of Scotland.
1019-54 Yaroslav, Great Prince of Kiev.
1096 Treaties of Lyúbech between the princes of the house of Rurik.
Wholesale massacres of Jews in France and Germany.
1124-53 David I, King of Scots.
1143 German colonists begin moving east of the Elbe en masse.
1144 Belief that William of Norwich was martyred by the Jews begins the “blood-accusation.”
1170 Strongbow begins the Norman conquest of Ireland.
1171 Henry II of England recognised as “Lord of Ireland.”
1188 The Cortes of Leon contain representatives of the cities.
1189 Pope Clement III declares the Scottish Church filia specialis of the Roman See.
190 Massacre of the Jew's at York.
1194-1240 Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Wales.
1204 Bishop Albert’s crusading Order in Livonia founded.
1210-39 Herman of Salza, Grandmaster of the Teutonic Order.
1215 Badges for the Jews prescribed in the Fourth Lateran Council.
1224 The Mongols defeat the Russians at the Kalka.
1228-30 The Teutonic Order enters Prussia.
1232 Frederick II summons representatives of the towns to a general assembly in Sicily
1237 Union of the Knights of the Sword with the Teutonic Order.
1240 Batu the Mongol destroys Kiev.
1241 Battle of Liegnitz.
1242 Batu founds the Khanate of the Golden Horde.
Alexander Nevsky defeats the Teutonic Order on Lake Peipus.
1254 Knights of the Shire summoned to the English Parliament.
1256-63 Alfonso X the Learned of Castile draws up the Siete Partidas.
1258-82 Llvwelyn ap Gruffydd, Prince of Wales.
1259 Treaty of Paris between France and England.
1263 Cession of the Hebrides to Scotland by Norway.
1265 Representatives of boroughs summoned to the English Parliament.
1266-85 Charles I of Anjou, King of Sicily.
1270-85 Philip III the Bold, King of France.
1271 Death of Alphonse of Poitou and Toulouse.
1271-76 Gregory X, Pope.
1272-1307 Edward I, King of England.
1273-91 Rudolf I of Habsburg, King of the Romans. Close of Interregnum
1274 Rudolf surrenders Romagna, Ancona, and Spoleto to the Papacy
1275 Second General Council of Lyons. Union of Latin and Greek Churches
1276-85 Peter III the Great, King of Aragon.
1277-80 Nicholas III, Pope.
1278Defeat and death of Ottokar II of Bohemia on the Marchfeld
The Statute of Gloucester (Quo Warranto).
1279Rudolf renounces all imperial claims on the Papal State and Sicily
Statute of Mortmain.
1282 Rudolf creates his sons Albert and Rudolf Dukes of Austria and Styria.
1282-1302 The War of the Sicilian Vespers.
1282 Separation of Naples and Sicily. Peter III of Aragon, King of Sicily.
1282-83 Edward I conquers the principality of Wales.
1282 Peter III of Aragon grants the Privilegio General.
1283 The subjection of Prussia completed by the Teutonic Order.
1285-1309 Charles II, King of Naples.
1285-1314 Philip IV the Fair, King of France.
1285 Champagne united to the French Crown.
Statute of Winchester.
Second Statute of Westminster (De Donis Conditionalibus).
1286 Edward I issues writ Circumspeete agatis.
1288 Peace of Caiifranc between Aragon and the Pope.
Alfonso III of Aragon grants the Privilegio de la Union.
1288-92 Nicholas IV, Pope.
1289 Battle of Campaldino.
1290 Expulsion of the Jews from England.
Third Statute of Westminster (Quia Emptores).
Death of Margaret, Queen of Scots (the Maid of Norway).
1291-1327 James II, King of Aragon.
1291 Loss of Acre. End of Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Edward I of England acknowledged as suzerain of Scotland.
The Confederation of the Three Forest Cantons founds Switzerland.
1292-98 Adolf of Nassau, King of the Romans.
1292 John Balliol becomes King of Scots.
1293 Ordinances of J ustice at Florence.
1294 Philip IV seizes Gascony.
Celestine V, Pope.
Treaty of Tonsberg between the Hansa and Norway.
1294-1303 Boniface VIII, Pope.
1295 The “Model” Parliament.
Peace of Anagni between Aragon, Naples, the Pope, and France.
Alliance of France and Scotland begins.
Matteo Visconti becomes despot of Milan.
1296 Boniface VIII issues the bull Clericis laicos.
Edward 1 annexes Scotland to England.
1296-1337 Frederick II, King of Sicily.
1297 Temporary reconciliation of Boniface VIII and Philip IV.
Edward I confirms the Charters with additions.
Closing of the Great Council at Venice.
First Irish Parliament summoned.
1297-1305 Sir William Wallace leads Scottish War of Independence.
1298 Defeat of Venetians by Genoese at Curzola.
Edward I defeats Wallace at Falkirk.
1298-1308 Albert I of Austria, King of the Romans.
1299 Battle of Falconaria.
1300 The Papal Jubilee.
1300-1 Expulsion of Whites from Florence. Exile of Dante.
1301 Edward I creates his eldest son Edward Prince of Wales.
1302 Renewed hostility of Boniface VIII and Philip IV.
Battle of Courtrai. Philip IV holds “States General” at Paris.
Matteo Visconti deposed. Guido della Torre, despot of Milan.
Peace of Caltabellotta.
Boniface VIII issues Unam sanctam.
1303 Edward I issues the Carta Mercatoria.
Peace of Paris between Edward I and Philip IV.
Capture of Boniface VIII at Anagni.
1303-4 Benedict XI, Pope.
1305 Treaty of Athis-sur-Orge between Philip IV and the Flemings.
1305-14 Clement V, Pope. Papacy transferred to France.
1306 Robert I Bruce crowned King of Scots. He continues War of Independence.
Expulsion of the Jews from France.
1307 Lyons admits French suzerainty.
Philip IV attacks the Templars.
1307- 27 Edward II, King of England.
1308- 10 Ferrarese War and defeat of Venice by papal army.
1308- 13 Henry VII of Luxemburg, King (Emperor) of the Romans.
1309 Clement V fixes the seat of the Papacy at Avignon.
1309- 43 Robert the Wise, King of Naples.
1310- 18 The Lords Ordainers in England.
1310 Conspiracy of Tiepolo. Council of Ten instituted at Venice.
Henry VII conquers Bohemia for his son John.
1310-46 John of Luxemburg, King of Bohemia.
1310- 13 Henry VIPs Italian expedition.
1311 Clement V erases bulls against Philip IV from the papal records.
1311- 22 Second tyranny of Matteo Visconti at Milan.
1311-29 Can Grande I della Scala, despot of Verona.
1311-12 General Council of Vienne.
1312 Abolition of the Order of Knights Templars.
1313 Breach of Henry VII with Papacy. His death.
Ordinance of the Staple.
1314 Double election of Lewis IV’ of Bavaria and Frederick the Handsome of
Austria as Kings of the Romans.
Robert Bruce defeats the English at Bannockburn.
Leagues of protest formed in France against the Crown.
1314-16 Louis X Hutin, King of France.
1315 Defeat of Guelfs by Ghibellines at Montecatini in Tuscany.
The Swiss defeat Leopold of Austria at Morgarten. Renewal of Swiss Confederation.
Death of Raymond Lull.
Louis X grants charters to the Leaguers.
1316-22 Philip V the Tall, King of France.
1316-34 John XXII, Pope.
1317 Assembly at Paris declares that a woman cannot inherit the French throne.
1321 Death of Dante.
1322-28 Charles IV the Fair, King of France.
1322 Battle of Boroughbridge. Execution of Thomas Earl of Lancaster.
Parliament of York. Commons’ consent necessary to fundamental Statutes.
Lewis IV defeats and captures Frederick the Handsome at Mühldorf.
1323 John XXII issues decretal Cum inter nonnullos.
1324 John XXII declares Lewis IV deprived of the Empire.
Lewis IV declares John XXII a heretic. The Sachsenhausen Appeal.
Publication of the Defensor Pacis of Marsilio of Padua and John of Jandun.
1327 Edward II of England deposed.
1327-77 Edward III, King of England.
1327 Peace of Paris between France and England.
Death of Master Eckehart.
1327-30 Lewis IV’s Italian expedition.
1328-50 Philip VI of Valois, King of France.
Succession through males only (“Salic Law”) established.
1328 Lewis IV’s lay coronation as Emperor at Rome.
Philip VI defeats the Flemings at Cassel.
Independence of Scotland recognised by the Treaty of Northampton
Ivan I Kalita of Moscow becomes Grand Prince. P ’
1329-71 David II, King of Scots.
1330-31 John of Bohemia in Italy.
1330 Edward III overthrows the power of Mortimer and Isabella.
1334-42 Benedict XII, Pope.
1337 Outbreak of the Hundred Years’ War. Edward claims the French Crown.
1337-45 James van Artevelde rules Ghent.
1338 The Electors’ Declaration of Rense.
The German Diet’s ordinance (at Frankfort) Licet iuris declares the imperial election and power to be independent of the Pope.
1339 Revolution in favour of the popolo in Genoa.
1340 Edward III takes title of King of France.
Edward III defeats the French in the naval battle of Sluys.
Edward III assents to Statute forbidding taxation save by consent of Parliament.
1340-41 Edward Ill’s quarrel with Stratford, Archbishop of Canterbury.
1342 Petrarch crowned at Rome.
1342-52 Clement VI, Pope.
1342-43 Tyranny of Walter of Brienne at Florence.
1343-83 Amadeus VI (“the Green Count”), Count of Savoy.
1343-81 Joanna I, Queen of Naples.
1343 Peace of Kalisz between Casimir the Great of Poland and the Teutonic Order.
1344 Prague made an archbishopric.
1346 Renewed papal deprivation of Lewis IV.
Charles IV (of Bohemia) elected King of the Romans.
1346-78 Charles (I), King of Bohemia.
1346 Edward III defeats Philip VI at Crecy.
Defeat of the Scots at Neville’s Cross.
1347 Cola di Rienzo tribune at Rome.
Edward III captures Calais.
Death of Lewis IV.
1348 Peter IV the Ceremonious of Aragon abolishes the Privilegio de la Union.
Charles IV founds the University of Prague.
1348-50 The Black Death.
1348-49 Massacres of the Jews throughout Germany lead to their emigration to Poland, which becomes their headquarters.
1349-69 Peter I the Cruel, King of Castile.
1349Charles, eldest grandson of the King of France, becomes Dauphin.
Death of Richard Rolle.
1350-64 John II the Good, King of France.
1351 Zurich joins the Swiss Confederation.
The first Statute of Provisors in England.
1352-62 Innocent VI, Pope.
1353-63 Cardinal Albornoz restores the Papal State.
1353 Berne joins the Swiss Confederation. Boccaccio finishes the Decameron.
1354 Majorca finally becomes part of the Aragonese kingdom.
1354-78 St Alexis, Metropolitan of Russia.
1355 Etienne Marcel takes the lead in the States General.
Charles IV crowned Emperor at Rome.
1355-56 Charles IV promulgates the Golden Bull, fixing the number and powers of the Electors.
1356 The Black Prince defeats and captures John II at Poitiers (Maupertuis).
1356-58 The States General under Etienne Marcel attempt reforms.
1357 Cardinal Albornoz promulgates the Egidian Constitutions for the Papal State.
1358 The Jacquerie in France. Death of Marcel.
1360 Waldemar IV of Denmark sacks Wisby.
Treaties of Bretigny and Calais.
1361 Death of Tauler.
1362 First version of the Vision of Piers the Plowman heing written.
The English Parliament opened by a speech in English.
1362-70 Urban V, Pope.
1363 Philip the Bold made Duke of Burgundy.
c. 1364 John Milic of Kromeriz begins to preach at Prague.
1364-80 Charles V the Wise, King of France.
1365 Statute of Praemunire in England.
1367 Victory of the Black Prince at Najera.
1368-69 Charles IV’s second Italian expedition.
1369 Renewal of the Hundred Years’ War.
Henry II of Trastamara becomes finally King of Castile. Treaty of Stralsund between the Hansa and Waldemar IV.
1370 The Pfaffenbrief adopted by the Swiss Confederation.
c. 1370 Wyclif publishes De Benedictu lnearnatione.
1370-78 Gregory XI, Pope.
1371 Edward III agrees to Parliament’s petition for lay ministers of the Crown.
1372 A Castilian fleet defeats the English off La Rochelle.
1372-73 Chaucer’s first journey to Italy.
1373 Charles IV acquires Brandenhurg.
1374 Death of Petrarch.
1375 Death of Boccaccio.
1376 The Good Parliament in England.
Death of the Black Prince.
1376-78 War of the “Eight Saints” between Florence and the Papacy.
1376-80 Wenceslas, King of the Romans.
1377 Gregory XI returns to Rome.
Gregory XI condemns Wyclif’s teaching in the De Civili Dominio.
Death of Edward III.
1377-99 Richard II, King of England.
1378 Revolt of the Ciompi at Florence.
Dimitri Donskoy of Moscow defeats the Tartars at Kulikovo on the Don.
1378-89 Urban VI, Pope at Rome.
1378 The Great Schism breaks out.
1378-94 Clement VII, Pope at Avignon.
1378 Death of Charles IV.
1378-1419 Wenceslas (IV), King of Bohemia.
c. 1379 Wyclif teaches his doctrine of the Eucharist.
1379 Death of Bertrand du Guesclin.
1380 Death of St Catherine of Siena.
Genoese forces surrender at Chioggia.
c. 1380 The Lollard translation of the Bible into English in progress.
1380-82 Philip van Artevelde rules Ghent.
1380-1422 Charles VI, King of France.
1381 The Peasants’ Revolt in England.
1381-86 Charles III of Durazzo, King of Naples.
1381 Peace of Turin between Venice and Genoa.
1382 Archbishop Courtenay suppresses the Lollard party at Oxford.
Charles VI defeats the Flemings at Roosebeke.
1384 Philip the Bold of Burgundy becomes Count of Flanders and Franche Comté.
Death of Wyclif.
Death of Gerard Groote.
1385 The Portuguese defeat the Castilians at Aljubarrota.
Peace of Tournai between Philip the Bold and the Flemings
1385-1402 Gian Galeazzo Visconti, despot of Milan.
1386 The Swiss defeat Rudolf IV of Austria at Sempach.
1386-1414 Ladislas, King of Naples.
1388 The Merciless Parliament in England.
The Swiss defeat Albert III of Austria at Nafels.
1389 Richard II assumes full royal power.
1389-1404 Boniface IX, Pope at Rome.
1391 Massacres of the Jews cause the existence of crypto-Judaism in Spain.
1392 Charles VI of France becomes insane for the first time
Treaty of the Hansa with Novgorod (the “cross-kissing of John Niebur”).
1393 Murder of John of Nepomuk.
The Sempacherhrief promulgated by the Swiss Confederation.
The “great” Statute of Praemunire in England.
1394 Death of Matthias of Janov.
Peace between Austria and Switzerland.
1394 Benedict XIII elected Pope at Avignon.
1395 Gian Galeazzo Visconti created Duke of Milan.
1396 Truce in the Hundred Years’ War.
1396-1403 Chrysoloras teaches Greek at Florence, Milan, and Pavia.
1397 The Union of Kalmar.
1398 The Parliament of Shrewsbury. Richard II banishes Norfolk and Hereford.
France withdraws obedience from Benedict XIII.
1399 Deposition of Richard II.
1399-1413 Henry IV, King of England.
1400-8 Revolt of Owain Glyn Dwt in Wales.
1400 Deposition of Wenceslas.
1400-10 Rupert of the Rhine, King of the Romans.
1400 Death of Chaucer.
1401 Rupert, King of the Romans, defeated by the Visconti.
1402 John Hus in charge of the Bethlehem Chapel at Prague.
1403 France returns to obedience to Benedict XIII.
1404-6 Innocent VII, Pope at Rome.
1404-19 John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy.
1406 Pisa becomes subject to Florence.
Gregory XII elected Pope at Rome.
1407 Murder of Louis, Duke of Orleans. The Burgundian and Armagnac factions take shape in France.
1408 France declares neutrality between the Popes. Rise of national churches.
Revolt and union of the Cardinals of both Popes.
1409 General Council of Pisa. It deposes both Popes and elects Alexander V.
Martin I of Aragon becomes Martin II, King of Sicily.
1410 Death of Alexander V. Election of John XXIII as Pope.
Defeat of the Teutonic Order by the Poles at Tannenberg (Grunwald).
Sigismund of Luxemburg, King of Hungary, elected King of the Romans.
1412 Filippo Maria Visconti becomes Duke of Milan.
1413 Thhe Cabochian riots in Paris. The Ordonnance Cabochiemie.
1413-22 Henry V, King of England.
1414-18 General Council of Constance.
1414-60 Guarino of Verona teaches the classics at Venice, Verona, and Ferrara.
1415 The Council of Constance deposes John XXIII. Gregory XII abdicates.
Henry V defeats the French at Agincourt.
1417 The Council of Constance deposes Benedict XIII and elects Martin V Pope.
1419 Henry V captures Rouen.
Murder of John the Fearless of Burgundy at Montereau.
1419-67 Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy.
1420 Treaty of Troyes by which Henry V becomes Regent of France and heir to the throne.
1420-46 Vittorino da Feltre conducts his school of La Giocosa at Mantua.
1422 Deaths of Henry V and Charles VI.
1422-61 Charles VII, King of France.
1438 Bessarion settles in Italy.
1440 Lorenzo Valla proves the Donation of Constantine to be spurious.
1444 The Dauphin Louis invades Switzerland with the Écorcheurs.
1446 Peace of Constance.
1448-61 St Jonas, Metropolitan of Russia, independent of the Patriarch of Constantinople.
1453 Fall of Constantinople.
1457 Peace of Lübeck between the Duke of Burgundy and the Hansa.
1461-83 Louis XI, King of France.
1462 Ivan III becomes Grand Prince of all Russia.
1466 Peace of Thorn between Poland and the Teutonic Order.
1467-77 Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy.
1474 “Perpetual Peace” between Switzerland and Austria.
Treaties of Utrecht between England and the Hansa.
1476 The Swiss defeat Charles the Bold at Grandson and Morat.
1477 The Swiss defeat Charles the Bold at Nancy.
1478 Peace of Zurich.
Ivan III of Russia annexes Novgorod.
1480 Ivan III of Russia throws off the Tartar suzerainty.
1481 The Covenant of Stanz promulgated by the Swiss Confederation.
1492 Expulsion of the Jews from the Spanish dominions.
1496 Expulsion of the Jews from Portugal.
1499 Autonomy of Switzerland within the Empire recognised by the Peace of Basle.