THE HISTORY OF THE REFORMATION
TABLE OF LEADING EVENTS
1503 Death of
Alexander VI. Accession of Julius II.
goes to Wittenberg.
Accession of Henry VIII in England.
1511 Synod of
of the Fifth Lateran Council.
1513 Death of
Accession of Giovanni de' Medici as Leo X.
Accession of Christian II in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.
1515 Death of
Louis XII of France. Accession of Francis I.
Battle of Marignano (September 13).
Concordat with Leo X.
Death of Ferdinand of Aragon.
Treaty of Noyon.
1517 Close of
the Fifth Lateran Council.
Charles V goes to Spain.
Publication of Luther's Theses (November).
before the Cardinal-Legate at Augsburg.
Zwingli, people's priest at Zurich.
1519 Death of
the Emperor Maximilian (January 19). Election of Charles to the Empire (June).
excommunicated. Publication of Luther's Appeal to the Christian Nobility.
Charles V in England (May).
Field of Cloth of Gold (June).
Coronation of Charles V at Aachen (October).
Christian crowned King of Sweden (November).
The Stockholm Bath of Blood.
Straits of Magellan passed.
of Gustaf Eriksson (Gustavus Vasa) in Dalecarlia.
Defeat of the Comuneros at Villalar (April 24).
Diet of Worms. Luther placed under the Ban of the Empire.
Treaty of Bruges (August). Albany in Scotland.
Outbreak of war. Occupation of Milan by the forces of Charles and Leo X
Death of Leo X (December 1).
of Adrian Dedel as Adrian VI.
Luther returns to Wittenberg.
Battle of the Bicocca (April).
Charles V in England. Treaty of Windsor (June).
Charles V in Spain.
The Knights' War in Germany.
Conquest of Mexico completed.
Capitulation of Rhodes to the Turks (December).
public disputation at Zurich.
Flight of Christian II from Denmark.
Rule of Frederick I (of Holstein) in Denmark and Norway.
Gustavus Vasa King in Sweden.
Defection of the Constable of Bourbon.
Bonnivet in Italy.
Suffolk and van Buren in Picardy.
Death of Adrian VI (September 14).
Election of Giulio de' Medici as Clement VII.
Albany leaves Scotland for the last time.
Beginnings of the Peasants' Rising in Germany (June).
Invasion of France. Siege of Marseilles.
Francis crosses the Alps.
Foundation of the Theatine Order.
of Pavia (February 24).
Treaties of the Moor (August).
Conspiracy of Girolamo Morone.
Prussia becomes a secular duchy.
of Madrid (January).
Marriage of Charles V with Isabella of Portugal.
League of Cognac (May).
Diet and Recess of Speier.
Battle of Mohacs (August).
Raid of the Colonna on Rome (September)
Ferdinand elected King of Bohemia and of Hungary.
The Reformation begins in Denmark.
of Henry VIII and Francis I.
Sack of Rome (May 6).
Invasion of Italy by Lautrec.
and England declare war on the Emperor (January).
Siege of Naples by Lautrec.
Defection of Andrea Doria.
Campeggio in England.
1529 Diet of
Speier. The Protest.
Execution of Berquin.
Civil War in Switzerland. First Peace of Kappel.
Treaty of Barcelona (June 29).
Charles V in Italy.
Peace of Cambray (August 5).
Siege of Vienna by the Turks.
Conference of Marburg.
Fall of Wolsey.
Conference at Bologna (Charles V and Clement VII).
Last imperial coronation by the Pope.
Charles V in Germany. Diet of Augsburg. Confession of Augsburg.
Capture of Florence (August).
against the Bishop at Geneva.
Death of Margaret of Savoy (December).
Ferdinand elected King of the Romans.
Maria of Hungary Regent of the Netherlands.
Henry VIII Supreme Head of the Church in England.
Marriage of Catharine de' Medici with Henry of France (October).
Battle of Kappel and death of Zwingli (October).
League of Schmalkalden.
Inquisition first established at Lisbon.
Annates abolished in England.
Alliance of France and England.
Turkish invasion repelled.
Religious Peace of Nurnberg (July).
Charles in Italy.
Second Conference at Bologna (December).
Conquest of Peru.
Act in restraint of Appeals to Rome.
Wullenwever Burgomaster of Lübeck.
Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn (May).
Catholic League of Halle.
Address of Cop. Flight of Calvin.
Death of Frederick I of Denmark. Disputed succession.
Anabaptist rising at Münster.
Duke Ulrich recovers Wurttemberg.
Peace of Cadan (June).
Foundation of the Society of Jesus by Ignatius Loyola.
Death of Clement VII (September).
Accession of Alessandro Farnese as Paul III.
The Placards at Paris.
English Act against Papal Dispensations, &c.
Act of Supremacy.
Expedition of Tunis.
Charles V in Sicily and Naples.
Death of Francesco Sforza (November).
Treaty of Francis with Solyman.
Third War between Francis I and Charles V. Savoy occupied by the French(March).
Calvin at Ferrara.
Publication of the Christianae Religionis Institutio.
Calvin at Geneva.
Invasion of Provence by Charles V.
Smaller monasteries dissolved in England. The Ten Articles.
Christian III established on the throne of Denmark ami Norway.
of Alessandro de' Medici. Succession of Cosimo I in Florence.
Consilium delectorum Cardinalium de emendanda Ecclesia.
Calvin expelled from Geneva.
Truce of Nice between Charles V and
Francis I (June).
Catholic League of Nürmberg (June).
Death of Charles of Gelders.
William succeeds to Cleves-Julich.
Joachim II of Brandenburg becomes a Protestant.
Death of Duke George of Saxony.
Monasteries suppressed in England. Act of the Six Articles.
and divorce of Anne of Cleves.
Venice makes peace with the Turks.
Reduction of Ghent (February).
Investiture of Philip with Milan.
Edict of Fontainebleau.
Death of John Zapolya.
The Jesuit order approved by Paul III.
Religious Colloquy of Ratisbon.
Solyman takes Buda (September).
Expedition against Algiers (October).
Calvin returns to Geneva.
War between Charles and Francis I.
John Frederick of Saxony and Philip of Hesse overrun Brunswick.
Death of James V of Scotland (December).
The Inquisition established at Rome.
Barbarossa in the Western Mediterranean.
Expedition of Charles against the Duke of Cleves.
Conquest of Gelders.
1544 Diet of
Battle of Ceresole (April).
Sieges of Boulogne and St Dizier.
Peace of Crépy (September).
of the Waldenses of Provence (April).
Opening of the Council of Trent (December).
1546 Death of
Peace between France and England.
Diet of Ratisbon.
Alliance of Charles V with Maurice of Saxony.
League of Charles V with Paul III.
The Schmalkaldic War.
Execution of the Fourteen of Meaux.
1547 Death of
Henry VIII (January). Accession of Edward VI.
Death of Francis I (March). Accession of Henry II.
The Council removes from Trent to Bologna (March).
Battle of Muhlberg (April). Maurice Elector of
Murder of Pierluigi Farnese (September).
Diet of Augsburg (September).
Battle of Pinkie.
Establishment of La Chambre Ardente.
Inquisition finally established at Lisbon.
of Mary Stewart to the Dauphin Francis.
The Augsburg Interim proclaimed (May).
First Prayer-Book of Edward VI.
1549 Consensus Tigurinus.
War between England and France.
Battle of Dussindale.
1549 Fall of
Somerset. Rule of Warwick (Northumberland) in England.
Council of Bologna suspended.
Death of Paul III.
of Giovanni Maria del Monte as Julius III.
Peace between England and France. Boulogne restored to France.
Maurice of Saxony undertakes to execute the ban against Magdeburg.
1551 War in the
The Council reopened at Trent.
Capture of Tripoli by the Turks.
War in Savoy (September).
Capitulation of Magdeburg (November).
of Chambord (January).
Second Act of Uniformity and Second Book of Common Prayer.
Invasion of Lorraine by France (March). Occupation of the three bishoprics.
Flight of Charles V before Maurice of Saxony (May).
Suspension of the Council of Trent.
Conference at Passau. Treaty of Passau.
Siege of Metz (October — December).
Capture of Terouanne (June).
Battle of Sievershausen (July). Death of Maurice of
Death of Edward VI of England (July). Lady Jane Grey proclaimed.
Accession of Mary Tudor.
of Sir Thomas Wyatt.
Expulsion of Albrecht Alcibiades from Germany.
Marriage of Philip of Spain and Mary Tudor (July).
1555 Diet of
Augsburg. Religious Peace of Augsburg (September).
Death of Julius III (March). Giovanni Pietro Caraffa elected as Paul IV.
Fall of Siena (April).
Abdication of Charles V at Brussels.
1556 Truce of Vaucelles.
War between Paul IV, supported by France, and Philip II, in Italy.
The Due de Guise in Italy (December).
declares war on France.
Battle of St Quentin (August).
Paul IV makes peace with Philip II (September).
of Calais (January).
Marriage of Mary Stewart and the Dauphin Francis.
Laynez elected General of the Jesuit Order.
Battle of Gravelines (July).
Death of Mary Tudor (November). Accession of Elizabeth.
1559 Death of
Christian III of Denmark (January).
Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity in England.
Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis (April).
John Knox in Scotland. The Lords of the Congregation in arms.
Protestant Synod at Paris.
Death of Henry II of France (July). Accession of Francis II.
Death of Paul IV (August).
Election of Giovanni Angelo de' Medici as Pius IV.
1560 Death of
Gustavus Vasa of Sweden.
Tumult of Amboise (February — March).
Michel de L'Hôpital Chancellor of France.
1560 Edict of Romorantin (May).
Treaty of Edinburgh (July).
Reforming Parliament at Edinburgh (August).
Arrest of Conde (October).
Death of Francis II of France. Accession of Charles IX
French Estates at Orleans.
Estates at Pontoise.
Mary Stewart in Scotland (August).
Colloquy of Poissy (September).
Council reopens at Trent.
Opening of the Religious Wars in France.
Treaty of Hampton Court (September).
Close of the Council of Trent.
Bull Benedictus Deus.
Death of Calvin (May),