JEWELS OF THE WESTERN CIVILIZATION
THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE
B.C. 146 - A.D. 1453
Preface to Greece under the Romans
CHAPTER I. From the Conquest of Greece to the Establishment of Constantinople as Capital of the Roman Empire. B.C. 146 — A.D. 330.
CHAPTER II. From the Establishment of Constantinople as Capital of the Roman Empire, to the Accession of Justinian. A.D.330— A.D. 627.
CHAPTER III. The Reign of Justinian. A.D. 527— A.D. 665.
CHAPTER IV. From the Death of Justinian to the Restoration of Roman Power in the East by Heraclius. A.D. 565— A.D. 683.
CHAPTER V. From the Mohammedan Invasion of Syria to the Extinction of the Roman Power in the East. A.D. 633— A.D. 716.
THE CONTEST WITH THE ICONOCLASTS
CHAPTER I. THE ISAURIAN DYNASTY. AD 717-797
Sect. 1. Characteristics of Byzantine History Its Divisions. Extent and Administrative Divisions of the Empire
Sect. 2. Reign of Leo III (the Isaurian), A.D. 717-741
Sect. 3. Constantine V (Copronymus), A.D. 741-775
Sect. 4. Reigns of Leo IV (the Khazar), Constantine VI and Irene, A.D. 775-802
CHAPTER II. THE REIGNS OF NICEPHORUS I, MICHAEL I, AND LEO V THE ARMENIAN, A.D. 802-820
Sect. I. Nicephorus I, A.D. 802-811
Sect 2. Michael I (Rhangabe), A.D. 812-813
Sect. 3. Leo V (the Armenian), A.D. 813-820
CHAPTER III. THE AMORIAN DYNASTY. AD 820-867
Sect. I. Michael II (the Stammerer), A.D. 820-829
Sect. 2. Theophilus, AD 829-842
Sect. 3. Michael III (the Drunkard,) A.D. 842-867
CHAPTER IV. STATE OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE DURING THE ICONOCLAST PERIOD
Sect. I. Public Administration Diplomatic and Commercial relations
Sect. 2. State of Society among the people of the Byzantine Empire in the eighth and ninth centuries
BASILIAN DYNASTY: PERIOD OF THE POWER AND GLORY OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE
CHAPTER I. CONSOLIDATION OF BYZANTINE LEGISLATION AND DESPOTISM. AD 867-963
Sect. 1. Reign of Basil I,(the Macedonian), A.D. 867-886
Sect. 2. Leo VI (the Philosopher), AD 886-912
Sect. 3. Alexander Minority of Constantine VII (Porphyrogenitus), Romanus I Lacapenus, AD 912-944
Sect. 4. Constantine VII (Porphyrogenitus), Romanus II, AD 945-963
CHAPTER II. PERIOD OF CONQUEST AND MILITARY GLORY. AD 963-1025
Sect. 1. Reigns of Nicephorus II Phokas, and John I (Zimiskes), A.D. 963-976
Sect. 2. Reign of Basil II (Bulgaroktonos), A.D. 976-1025
CHAPTER III. PERIOD OF CONSERVATISM ON THE EVE OF DECLINE. AD1025-1057
Sect. 1. Constantine VIII, A.D. 1025-1028
Sect. 2. The Reigns of the husbands of Zoe, AD 1028-1054
Sect. 3. Reigns of Theodora and Michael VI (Stratiotikos or the Warlike), AD 1054-1057
DECLINE AND FALL OF THE BYZANTINE GOVERNMENT
CENTRAL GOVERNMENT MODIFIED BY THE DESTRUCTION OF THE POPULATION IN ASIA MINOR. A.D. 1057-1081
Section I: Reigns of Isaac I (Comnenus), and of Constantine X (Ducas)
Section II: Regency of Eudocia, A.D. 1067; Romanus IV Diogenes, A.D. 1068-1071; Michael VII, A.D. 1071-1078; Nicephorus III, A.D. 1078-1081
THE DYNASTY OF COMNENUS, A.D. 1081-1185
Section I: The reign of Alexius I. A.D 1081-1118.
Section II: The reign of John II. A.D. 1118-1143
Section III: Reign of Manuel I. A.D. 1143-1180
Section IV: Reigns of Alexius II and Andronicus I. A.D. 1180-1185
THE FALL OF THE BYZANTINE EMIRE
Section I: The Reign of Isaac II (Angelos) A.D. 1185-1195.
Section II: Reign of Alexius III (Angelos Comnenos) A.D. 1196-1203.
Section III: The Conquest of Constantinople and the Partition of the Byzantine Empire. A.D. 1203-1204.
GREEK EMPIRE OF NICAEA AND CONSTANTINPLE. A.D.1204-1453
EMPIRE OF NICAEA, AD. 1204-1261.
Section I: REIGN OF THEODORE I. (LASCARIS), A.D. 1204-1222.
Section II: REIGN OF JOHN III (DUKAS VATATZES), 1222-1254.
Section IIII: FROM THE DEATH OF JOHN III TO THE RECOVERY OF CONSTANTINOPLE BY THE GREEKS, A.D. 1254-1261.
GREEK EMPIRE OF CONSTANTINOPLE UNDER THE DYNASTY OF PALEOLOGOS, A.D. 1261-1453.
Section I: MICHAEL VIII., A.D. 1261-1282.
Section II: REIGN OF ANDRONICUS II, A.D. 1282-1828.
Section III: REIGN OF ANDRONICUS III THE YOUNGER, A.D. 1328-1341
Section IV: Reign of John V (Palaeologos), A.D. 1341-1391, including the Reigns of John Cantacuzenos, A.D. 1347- 1354, and of Andronicus, the son of John V, A.D. 1375-1376 and 1379-1381.
Section V: REIGN OF MANUEL II., A.D. 1891-1426.
Section VI: REIGN OF JOHN VI, A.D. 1425-1448
Section VII: REIGN OF CONSTANTINE XI, A.D. 1448- 1453
323. Death of Alexander. Lamian war
32 a. Antipater disfranchised 12,000 Athenian citizens
321. Ptolemy founds a monarchy in Egypt.
312. Era of Seleucidae.
310. Agathocles invades Carthaginian possessions in Africa.
303. Demetrius Poliorcetes raises siege of Rhodes.
300. Mithridates Ariobarzanes founds kingdom of Pontus.
280. Achaian league commenced.
Pyrrhus landed in Italy to defend the Greeks against the Romans.
279. Gauls invade Greece, and are repulsed at Delphi.
278. Nicomedes brings the Gauls into Asia.
271. Romans complete the conquest of Magna Graecia.
260. Romans prepare their first fleet to contend with Carthage.
250. Parthian monarchy founded by Arsaces.
241. Attains, king of Pergamus.
228. First Roman embassy to Greece
218. Hannibal invades Italy.
212. Syracuse taken by Romans. Sicily conquered.
210. Sicily reduced to the condition of a Roman province.
202. Battle of Zama.
197. Battle of Cynoscephalae.
196. The Greeks declared free by Flamininus at the Isthmian games.
192. Antiochus the Great invades Greece.
188. The laws of Lycurgus abrogated by Philopoemen.
181. Death of Hannibal.
168. Battle of Pydna. End of Macedonian monarchy.
167. One thousand Achaian citizens sent as hostages to Rome.
155. The fine of 500 talents imposed on Athens for plundering the Oropians remitted by the Romans.
147. Macedonia reduced to the condition of a Roman province.
146. Corinth taken by Mummius. Greece reduced to the condition of a Roman province.
133. Rebellion of slaves in the Attic silver mines.
130. Asia, embracing great part of the country between the Halys and Mount Taurus, constituted a Roman province.
96. Cyrenaica becomes a Roman possession by the will of Ptolemy Apion.
86. Athens taken by Sulla.
77. Depredations of the pirates on the coasts of Greece and Asia Minor at their acme.
75. Bithynia and Pontus constituted a Roman province.
67. Crete conquered by Metellus after a war of two years and a-half, and shortly after reduced to the condition of a Roman province. It was subsequently united with Cyrenaica.
66. Monarchy of the Seleucidae conquered by Pompey.
65. Cilicia reduced to the condition of a Roman province.
48. Caesar destroys Megara.
44. Caesar founds a Roman colony at Corinth.
30. Augustus founds Nicopolis.
Egypt reduced to the condition of a Roman province.
25. Galatia and Lycaonia constituted a Roman province.
24. Pamphylia and Lycia constituted a Roman province.
21. Cyprus reduced to the condition of a Roman province. Athens deprived of its jurisdiction over Eretria and Aegina, and the confederacy of the free Laconian cities formed by Augustus.
14. Augustus establishes a Roman colony at Patrae.
A.D. Year of Rome 753. 194th Olympiad, 4th year, a.m. 5508 of the Byzantines, called the Aera of Constantinople; but other calculations were adopted at Alexandria and Antioch.
18. Cappadocia reduced to the condition of a Roman province.
22. The Roman senate restricts the right of asylum claimed by the Greek temples and sanctuaries.
66. Nero in Greece.
67. Nero celebrates the Olympic Games.
72. Commagene reduced to a Roman province.
73. Thrace reduced to a Roman province by Vespasian. Rhodes, Samos, and other islands on the coast of Asia deprived of their privileges as free states, and reduced to the condition of a Roman province called the Islands.
74. Vespasian expels the philosophers from Rome.
90. Domitian expels the philosophers from Rome.
96. Apollonius of Tyana at Ephesus at the time of Domitian’s death.
98. Plutarch flourishes.
103. Epictetus teaches at Nicopolis.
112. Hadrian, archon of Athens.
1 15. Martyrdom of Ignatius.
122. Hadrian visits Athens.
125. Hadrian again at Athens.
129. Hadrian passes the winter at Athens.
132. Jewish war.
135. Hadrian is at Athens towards the close of the Jewish war.
143. Herodes Atticus consul.
162. Galen at Rome. Pausanias, Polyaenus, Lucian, and Ptolemy flourish.
168. Disgrace of Herodes Atticus at Sirmium.
176. Marcus Aurelius visits Athens and establishes scholarchs of the four great philosophic sects.
180. Dio Cassius, Herodian, Athenaeus flourish.
212. Edict of Caracalla, conferring the Roman citizenship on all the free inhabitants of the empire.
226. Artaxerxes overthrows the Parthian empire of the Arsacidae, and founds the Persian monarchy of the Sassanidae.
238. Herodian, Aelian, Philostratus.
251. The emperor Decius defeated and slain by the Goths.
267. Athens taken by the Goths.
284. Aera of Diocletian, called Aera of the Martyrs.
312. ISt September. Cycle of Indictions of Constantine.
325. Council of Nicaea.
330. Dedication of Constantinople.
332. Cherson assists Constantine against the Goths.
337. Constantine II, Constantius, Constans, emperors.
355. Julian appointed Caesar.
364. Valentinian I. Valens.
365. Earthquake in Greece, Asia Minor, and Sicily.
375. Earthquake felt especially in Peloponnesus.
378. Defeat and death of Valens.
379. Theodosius the Great
381. Second oecumenical council, at Constantinople.
394. Olympic Games abolished.
395. Arcadius and Honorius. Huns ravage Asia Minor. Alaric invades Greece.
398. Alaric governor of Eastern Illyricum.
408. Theodosius II.
425. University of Constantinople organized.
428. Genseric invades Africa.
431. Third oecumenical council, at Ephesus.
438. Publication of the Theodosian Code.
439. Genseric takes Carthage.
441. Theodosius II sends a fleet against Genseric.
442. Attila invades Thrace and Macedonia.
447. Attila ravages the country of Thermopylae.
Walls of Constantinople repaired by Theodosius II.
449. Council of Ephesus, called the Council of Brigands.
451. Fourth oecumenical council, at Chalcedon.
457. Leo I, called the Great, and the Butcher.
458. Great earthquake felt from Antioch to Thrace.
460. Earthquake at Cyzicus.
465. Fire which destroyed parts of eight of the sixteen quarters of Constantinople.
468. Leo I sends a great expedition against Genseric.
473. Leo II crowned.
474. Leo II. Zeno the Isaurian.
476. End of the Western Roman Empire.
477. Return of Zeno, twenty months after he had been driven from Constantinople by Basiliskos.
480. Earthquakes at Constantinople during forty days.
Statue of Theodosius the Great thrown from its column.
491. Anastasius I, called Dicorus.
499. Bulgarians invade the empire.
507. Anastasius constructs the long wall of Thrace.
514. Revolt of Vitalianus.
518. Justin I.
526. Death of Theodoric.
527. Justinian I.
Gretes, king of the Huns, receives baptism at Constantinople.
The Tzans submit to the Roman Empire.
528. Gordas, king of the Huns, on the Cimmerian Bosphorus, receives baptism at Constantinople, and is murdered by his subjects on his return.
Justinian commences his lavish expenditure on fortifications and public buildings.
529. First edition of the Code of Justinian.
Schools of philosophy at Athens closed.
531. Battle of Callinicum. Death of Kobad, king of Persia.
Plague commenced which ravaged the Roman Empire for fifty years.
532. Sedition of Nika.
Peace concluded with Chosroes.
533- Conquest of the Vandal kingdom in Africa.
Institutions and Pandects published.
534. Belisarius returns to Constantinople.
Second edition of the Code.
536. Belisarius takes Rome.
537. Siege of Rome by Goths under Witiges.
Dedication of St. Sophia.
538. Bulgarians invade the empire.
Famine in Italy.
539. Witiges besieged in Ravenna.
Huns plunder Greece to the Isthmus of Corinth.
540. Surrender of Ravenna.
541. Totila king of the Groths.
Consulate abolished by Justinian.
542. Great pestilence at Constantinople.
546. Rome taken by Totila.
547. Rome taken by Belisarius.
548. Belisarius quits Italy.
Death of Theodora.
549. Rome again taken by Totila.
Justinian’s armies occupy the country of the Lazi.
550. Sclavonians and Huns invade the empire,
551. Silkworm introduced into the Roman Empire.
552. Totila defeated. Rome retaken by Narses.
553. Fifth oecumenical council at Constantinople.
554. Earthquakes at Constantinople, Nicomedia, Berytus, and Cos.
Church of Cyzicus fell during divine service.
557. Terrible earthquake at Constantinople. Justinian did not wear his crown for forty days.
558. Zabergan, king of the Huns, defeated near Constantinople by Belisarius.
562. Treaty of peace with Persia. Belisarius accused of treason.
563. Belisarius restored to his rank.
565. March — death of Belisarius.
13th Nov.— death of Justinian in the thirty-ninth year of his reign. Justin II.
567. Kingdom of Gepids destroyed by Lombards.
568. Lombards invade Italy.
569. Justin sends the embassy of Zemarchos to the Turks.
571. Mahomet born. Weil says he died in 632, at the age of 63 lunar years, which places his birth in April 571.
572. War between the Roman Empire and Persia.
574. Tiberius defeated by the Avars.
Tiberius proclaimed Caesar by Justin.
576. Battle of Melitene. Romans penetrate to Caspian Sea.
578. Death of Justin II. Tiberius II.
579. Death of Chosroes.
581. Persian army defeated by Maurice in his fourth campaign.
582. 14th Aug. — death of Tiberius. Maurice.
John the Faster, patriarch of Constantinople, uses the title Ecumenic, granted to the patriarch by Justinian.
589. Incursions of the Avars and Sclavonians into Greece. From this time Sclavonian colonies were settled in the Peloponnesus.
590. Maurice crowns his son Theodosius at Easter. Hormisdas, king of Persia, dethroned and murdered.
591. Chosroes II restored to the Persian throne by the assistance of Maurice.
Maurice marches out of Constantinople against the Avars.
600. Maurice fails to ransom the Roman prisoners.
602. Rebellion of the army. Phocas proclaimed emperor.
603. Persian war commences.
608. Priscus, the son-in-law of Phocas, invites Heraclius.
609. Persians lay waste Asia Minor, and reach Chalcedon.
610. Phocas slain. Heraclius.
613. Heraclius Constantine, or Constantine III., crowned 22nd Jan.; he was born 3rd May 612.
614. Jerusalem taken by the Persians, and Church of the Holy Sepulchre burned.
615. Heraclius sends the patrician Niketas to seize the wealth of John the Charitable, patriarch of Alexandria.
616. Persians invade Egypt
617. Persians occupy Chalcedon with a garrison.
618. Public distribution of bread at Constantinople commuted for a payment in money preparatory to its abolition.
619. Avars attempt to seize Heraclius at a conference for peace.
620. Peace concluded with the Avars.
621. Great preparations for carrying on the Persian war.
622. Monday, 5th April — Heraclius left Constantinople and proceeded by sea to Pylae. He collected troops from the provinces, and exercised his army. He advanced to the frontiers of Armenia, and made dispositions to winter in Pontus, but suddenly advanced through Armenia into Persia. The Persians made a diversion against Cilicia, but, on Heraclius continuing his advance, turned and pursued him. Heraclius gained a battle, and placed his army in winter quarters in Armenia. 16th July — Aera of the Hegira of Mahomet.
623. 25th March — Heraclius left Constantinople, joined the army in Armenia, and was in the Persian territory by the 20th April. Chosroes rejects terms of peace, and Heraclius takes Ganzaca and Thebarmes. Chosroes fled by the passes into Media, and Heraclius retired to winter in Albania.
Death of Sisebut, king of the Visigoths, who had conquered the Roman possessions in Spain.
624. Chosroes sends an army, under Sarablagas and Perozites, to guard the passes by which Heraclius was likely to invade Persia; but the emperor, making a long circuit by the plains, engaged Sarablagas before he was joined by Sarbaraza, and gained the battle. Sarbaraza, and then Saen, are also defeated.
The Lazes and Abasges abandoned Heraclius in this campaign. Heraclius wintered in the Persian territory. This was a campaign of marches and counter-marches in a mountainous country, and Heraclius was opposed by greatly superior forces, who succeeded in preventing his advance into Persia.
625. Heraclius resolves to return into the south-eastern part of Asia Minor. From his winter quarters there were two roads — a short mountain-road by Taranton, where nothing could be found for the troops; a longer road, by the passes of Mount Taurus, where supplies could be obtained. After a difficult march of seven days over Taurus, Heraclius crossed the Tigris, marched by Martyropolis to Amida, where he rested, and despatched a courier to Constantinople. As the Persians were following, Heraclius placed guards in the passes, crossed the Nymphius, and reached the Euphrates, where he found the bridge of boats withdrawn. He crossed by a ford, and passed by Samosata over Mount Taurus to Germanicia and Adana, where he encamped between the city and the bridge over the Saros. Sarbaraza advances to the Saros, and, after a battle, retires. Heraclius advances to Sebaste, crosses the Halys, and puts his army into winter quarters. Chosroes plunders the Christian churches in Persia, and compels all Christians in his dominions to profess themselves Nestorians.
626. The scholarians make a tumult at Constantinople because they are deprived of the bread which had previously been distributed. John Seismos attempts to raise the price of bread from three to eight pholles.
Constantinople besieged by the Avars from 29th July to 8th August.
A Persian army under Sarbaraza occupies Chalcedon. Another under Saen is defeated by Theodore, the emperor’s brother. Heraclius stations himself in Lazica, and waits until he is assured of the defeat of the Avars before Constantinople, and the passage of the Caspian gates by an army of Khazars under Ziebel. Meeting of Heraclius and Ziebel took place near Tiflis, which was occupied by a Persian garrison. The Khazars furnish Heraclius with 40,000 troops.
The church of Blachernes is enclosed within the fortifications of the city by a new wall.
627. Heraclius appears to have derived little advantage from the assistance of the 40,000 Khazars, unless we suppose that by their assistance he was able to render himself master of Persarmenia and Atropatene. They quitted him during the year 627.
9th October — Heraclius entered the district of Chamaetha, where he remained seven days, 1st December — Heraclius reached the greater Zab, crossed and encamped near Nineveh.
Rhazetas quitted his station at Ganzaca, and pursued Heraclius — crossed the greater Zab by a ford three miles lower down than Heraclius passed it. Battle in which Rhazetes was defeated on Saturday, 12th December. Sarbaraza recalled from Chalcedon to oppose the advance of Heraclius, who occupied Nineveh, and passed the greater Zab again.
23rd December — Heraclius passed the lesser Zab, and rested several days in the palace of Jesdem, where he celebrated Christmas.
628. 1st January — Heraclius passed the river Toma, took the palace of Beglali with its parks, and Dastagerd, where Chosroes had resided for twenty-four years and accumulated great treasures.
Heraclius recovered three hundred standards taken by the Persians from the Romans at different times, and passed the feast of Epiphany (6th January) at Dastagerd. He quitted Dastagerd on the 7th, and in three days reached the neighbourhood of Ctesiphon, and encamped twelve miles from the Arba, which he found was not fordable. He then ascended the Arba to Siazouron, and spent the month of February in that country. In March he spent seven days at Varzan, where he received news of the revolution which had taken place, and that Siroes had dethroned his father. Heraclius then retired from the neighbourhood of Ctesiphon by Siarzoura, Chalchas, Jesdem. He passed mount Zara (Zagros), where there was a great fall of snow during the month of March, and encamped near Ganzaca, which had then three thousand houses.
3rd April — An ambassador of Siroes arrived at the camp of Heraclius. Peace concluded. 8th April — Heraclius quitted his camp at Ganzaca.
15th May — His letters announcing peace were read in the church of St. Sophia at Constantinople.
629. Death of Siroes, or Kabad, succeeded by his son Ardeshir.
Heraclius visits Jerusalem, and restores the Holy Cross to the keeping of the patriarch.
630. Heraclius at Hierapolis occupied with ecclesiastical reforms.
632. Death of Mahomet, 7th or 8th June.
Aera of Yesdedjerd, 15th August
633. The chronology of the Saracen campaigns in Syria is extremely uncertain. The accounts of the Greek and Arabian writers require to be adjusted by the sequence of a few events which can be fixed with accuracy.
Bosra besieged, and perhaps it was taken early in the following year.
Abubekr was occupied, for some time after the death of Mahomet, in reducing the rebellious Arabs to submission, and in subduing several false prophets.
634. 30th July— Battle of Adjnadin.
22nd August — Death of Abubekr.
September — Battle of Yerrauk (Hieromax). Omar was already proclaimed caliph in the Syrian army.
635. Damascus taken after a siege of several months. The siege commenced after the battle of Yermuk.
Heraclius, taking the Holy Cross with him, quitted Syria, and retired to Constantinople.
636. Various towns on the sea-coast taken by the Saracens, and another battle fought
Vahan, the commander of the Roman army, appears to have been proclaimed emperor in this or the preceding year.
637. Capitulation of Jerusalem. The date of Omar’s entry into Jerusalem and of the duration of the siege are both uncertain.
638. Invasion of Syria by a Roman army from Diarbekr, which besieges Emesa, but is defeated.
Antioch taken. —
639. Jasdos takes Edessa and conquers Mesopotamia. —
December — Amrou invades Egypt.
640. The 19th Hegira began 2nd January 640.
The Caliph Omar orders a census of his dominions.
Cairo taken. Capitulation of Mokaukas for the Copts.
641. February or March — Death of Heraclius. His reign of 30 years, 4 months, 6 days, would terminate 10th February.
Heraclius Constantine reigned 103 days, to 24th May.
Heracleonas sole emperor less than five months.
October — Constans II.
December — Alexandria taken by Saracens, retaken by Romans, and recovered by Saracens.
643. Omar rebuilds or repairs the temple of Jerusalem.
Canal of Suez restored by Amrou.
644. Death of Omar.
647. Saracens drive Romans out of Africa, and impose tribute on the province.
Moawyah invades Cyprus.
648. Moawyah besieges Aradus, and takes it by capitulation.
Constans II publishes the Type.
653. Moawyah takes Rhodes, and destroys the Colossus.
654. Pope Martin banished to Cherson.
655. Constans II defeated by the Saracens in a great naval battle off Mount Phoenix in Lycia.
656. Othman assassinated, 17th June.
658. Expedition of Constans II against the Sclavonians.
Peace concluded with Moawyah.
659. Constans II puts his brother Theodosius to death.
661. Murder of Ali, 22nd January.
Constans II quits Constantinople, and passes the winter at Athens.
662. Saracens ravage Romania (Asia Minor), and carry off many prisoners.
663. Constans II visits Rome.
668. The Saracens advance to Chalcedon, and take Amorium, where they leave a garrison; but it is soon retaken.
Constans II assassinated at Syracuse,
Constantine IV (Pogonatus).
669. The Saracens carry off 180,000 prisoners from Africa.
The troops of the Orient theme demand that the brothers of Constantine IV should receive the imperial crown, in order that three emperors might reign on earth to represent the Trinity in heaven.
670. Saracens pass the winter at Cyzicus.
671. Saracens pass the winter at Smyrna and in Cilicia.
672. Constantine IV prepares ships to throw Greek fire on the Saracens, who besiege Constantinople.
673. Saracens, who have wintered at Cyzicus, penetrate into the port of Constantinople, and attack Magnaura and Cyclobium, the two forts at the continental angles of the city.
Saracens again pass the winter at Cyzicus
674. Third year of the siege of Constantinople.
Saracen troops pass the winter in Crete.
677. Sixth year of the siege of Constantinople.
The Mardaites alarm the Caliph Moawyah by their conquests on Mount Lebanon.
Thessalonica besieged by the Avars and Sclavonians.
678. Seventh year of the siege of Constantinople.
The Saracen fleet destroyed by Greek fire invented by Callinicus.
Bulgarians found a monarchy south of the Danube, in the country still called Bulgaria.
Peace concluded with the Caliph Moawyah.
679. War with the Bulgarians.
680. Death of the Caliph Moawyah.
Sixth general council of the church.
681. Heraclius and Tiberius, the brothers of Constantine IV, are deprived of the imperial title.
684. The Caliph Abdalmelik offers to purchase peace by the payment of an annual tribute of 365,000 pieces of gold, 365 slaves, and 365 horses.
685. September — Death of Constantine IV (Pogonatus).
Justinian II ascends the throne, aged sixteen.
686. Treaty of peace between the emperor and the caliph.
687. Emigration of Mardaites.
The Sclavonians of Strymon carry their piratical expeditions into the Propontis.
689. Justinian II forces the Greeks to emigrate from Cyprus.
691. Defeat of Justinian II, and desertion of the Sclavonian colonists.
692. General council of the church in Trullo,
The haratch established by the caliph.
695. Justinian II deposed and his nose cut off, and he is banished to Cherson.
697. Saracens carry off great numbers of prisoners from Romania (Asia Minor).
First doge of Venice elected.
Carthage taken by the Romans, and garrisoned.
698. Carthage retaken by the Saracens.
Leontius dethroned and his nose cut off.
Tiberius III (Apsimar), emperor.
703. Saracens defeated in Cilicia by Heraclius, the brother of Tiberius III.
705- Justinian II (Rhinotmetus) recovers possession of the empire.
708. The Saracens push their ravages to the Bosphorus.
709. Moslemah transports 80,000 Saracens from Lampsacus into Thrace.
710. Ravenna and Cherson treated with inhuman cruelty by Justinian II.
711. Justinian II dethroned and murdered.
713. Philippicus dethroned, and his eyes put out.
Anastasius II emperor.
716. Anastasius II dethroned.
Theodosius III emperor.
Leo the Isaurian relieves Amorium, concludes a truce with Moslemah, and is proclaimed emperor by the army.